An Introduction
to this edition of the Spenser Letters

Edmund Spenser departed London for Dublin in July or August of 1580, one of several new secretaries appointed to the service of Arthur, Lord Grey of Wilton, the new Lord Deputy of Ireland. It was probably his first official post in the Elizabethan government of Ireland, but it was certainly not his last; over the succeeding two decades, his fortunes became firmly tied to those of the crown administration of Ireland, flourishing with the strengthening of royal and conciliar power, and, ultimately, dissolving with the explosion of the Tyrone rebellion in Munster in 1598. In his first two years in the service of the Lord Deputy and Privy Council in Dublin, Spenser became acquainted with the policy issues that would absorb him throughout the rest of his active political career, and would eventually find their way into his most important poem, The Faerie Queene. In the letters that he wrote and copied for his patrons in the Dublin administration, we may perceive something of the political education of the poet, the currency of a statecraft learned on the job. An appreciation of the events and issues contained in the letters thus forms an important context both for our understanding of Spenser's prose tract, A view of the present state of Ireland, and for our appreciation of the political content of The Faerie Queene and the shorter poems.

The letters thought to have been copied, endorsed, or signed by Spenser during his secretaryship are preserved in several collections held at different locations. The most important resource is certainly the collection of State Papers from Elizabeth's reign held in the Public Record Office (hereafter PRO) in Kew, London. The series is catalogued in the Calendar of State Papers, Ireland (CSPI) for Elizabeth's reign, and runs to something like eighty individual items. Other collections in which Spenser's hand may be discerned include the the Cecil papers and the Carew Papers held at Lambeth Palace Library. The British Library, too, holds several documents pertaining to Elizabethan Irish affairs, some of which may be in Spenser's hand. Although several Spenser scholars have emphasized the importance of these letters to our understanding of Spenser's politics and understanding of Irish affairs--Hilary Jenkinson, Raymond Jenkins, and Henry Plomer studied them assiduously in the last century, and a recent vogue for Irish studies of Spenser's poetry has brought them again to the fore, particularly in the work of critics like Willy Maley and Richard McCabe-no edition of the letters has ever been published. The only satisfactory list of the letters is that compiled by Anthony Petti for his article in The Spenser Encyclopedia, but although Petti's scholarship has sensibly dealt with the known evidence, he freely admits that Spenser autographs will continue to crop up; in this sense even a definitive list of autograph papers has yet to be drawn up. It is the goal of this edition of the letters to settle this score, and to provide the texts of the letters as a resource for future Spenser scholarship.

The nucleus of this resource will be the documents identified by Petti, including over eighty separate items from the PRO, six items from the Cecil papers, and three from the British Library (transcriptions of a few other documents, from the Folger Library and the University of Kansas, appear elsewhere in Hap Hazard, as they do not relate to Spenser's administrative posts in Ireland). A full list of this nuclear collection, drawn primarily from the work of Petti, appears on the contents page. Separate editions of each of these letters, including textual and interpretive notes for each document, will appear in weekly instalments over the next several months. In this sense, the edition of Spenser letters, like many of the other editions offered in Hap Hazard, is an evolving resource. It is likewise evolving in a much more serious way: despite Petti's scholarship, it is not possible to determine, at this stage, which of the letters listed on the contents page should definitively be associated with Spenser; the provisional list will certainly be guilty of misattributions and omissions. The question of attribution will be separately treated in the textual notes for each letter, and it is expected that, at the end of the transcription process, a definitive statement about the attribution of the PRO letters will be possible. At that point, too, the scope will expand to other documents contained in the PRO, in the collections of Cecil and Carew papers, and in the British Library and elsewhere; at this later date a projected list for the complete archive will be supplied. It is anticipated that a complete resource will be available by September of 2001. At this later point, too, it will be possible to expand on Anthony Petti's description of Spenser's hand in The Spenser Encyclopedia, offering a more detailed analysis, complete with illustrations from the documents.

The Spenser letters represent an important and enduring witness to the language, the policies, and the history of Elizabethan Irish government, one until now comparatively inaccessible to students of Spenser's biography and poetry. We hope that this developing archive will prove useful to scholars interested in his politics, and more broadly in the range of ideas and arguments shared between the worlds of Irish administration and English poetry.

20 November, 2000

[Back to the Index of Letters]

Further Reading


Spenser's Handwriting

Beal, Peter. Index of English Literary Manuscripts, Volume I: 1450-1625. London: Mansell, 1980. Part 2, pp. 526-531.

Carpenter, Frederic Ives. A Reference Guide to Edmund Spenser. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1923, pp. 286-288.

Dawson, Giles E., and Laetitia Kennedy-Skipton. Elizabethan Handwriting 1500-1650: a guide to the reading of documents and manuscripts. London: Faber, 1966.

Greg, W. W., et al. English Literary Autographs, 1550-1650. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1925-1932.

Jenkins, Raymond. 'Spenser and the Clerkship in Munster.' Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, 47 (1932): 109-121.

Jenkins, Raymond. 'Spenser's Hand.' Times Literary Supplement, 31 (7 January, 1932): 12.

Jenkins, Raymond. 'Spenser at Smerwick.' Times Literary Supplement, 32 (May 11, 1933): 331.

Raymond Jenkins, 'News out of Munster, A Document in Spenser's Hand'. Studies in Philology, 32 (1935):125-130.

Jenkins, Raymond. 'Spenser with Lord Grey in Ireland'. Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, 52 (1937): 338-353.

Jenkins, Raymond. 'Spenser: The Uncertain Years 1584-1589'. Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, 53 (1938): 350-362.

Jenkinson, Hilary. 'Elizabethan Handwritings: A Preliminary Sketch'. The Library, ser. 4, 3 (1923):1-4.

McKerrow, R. B. 'Note on Elizabethan Handwriting', in Philip Gaskell, A New Introduction to Bibliography. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972.

Petti, Anthony G. English Literary Hands from Chaucer to Dryden. London: Edward Arnold, 1977.

Plomer, Henry R. 'Edmund Spenser's Handwriting'. Modern Philology, 21 (1923-4): 201-7.

Smith, Roland M. 'Spenser's Scholarly Script and "Right Writing"', in Studies in Honor of T. W. Baldwin. Ed. D. C. Allen. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1958, pp. 66-111.

Tuve, Rosemond. 'Spenserus', in Essays in English Literature from the Renaissance to the Victorian Age Presented to A. S. P. Woodhouse. Ed. Millar Maclure and F. W. Watt. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1964, pp. 3-25.

Historical Context

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Acts of the Privy Council in Ireland, 1556-71, ed. J. T. Gilbert, in Historical Manuscripts Commission, rep. 15, app. iii (1897), pp. 1-256.

Andrews, J. H. 'Baptista Boazio's map of Ireland', Long Room, the Bulletin of the Friends of the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, 1 (1970): 29-36.

Andrews, J. H. 'An early map of Inishowen', Long Room, the Bulletin of the Friends of the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, 7 (1973): 19-25.

Beacon, Richard. Solon his follie, or, A politique discourse touching the reformation of common-weales conquered, declined or corrupted (1594), ed. Clare Carroll and Vincent Carey. Binghamton: Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 1996.

Boazio, Baptista. Map of Ireland, c. 1600, a facsimile. London: British Museum, 1938.

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Calendar of the patent rolls preserved in the Public Record Office, Edward VI to Elizabeth, 1547-75. London: Stationery Office, 1924-73. 16 vols. Calendar of the state papers relating to Ireland, of the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary, and Elizabeth: Preserved in the State Paper Department of H. M. Public Record Office. London: Longman, Green, Longman, and Roberts, 1860-1912. 11 vols.

Camden, William. Britannia sive...Angliae, Scotiae, Hiberniae chorographica descriptio, trans. Philemon Holland. London: George Bishop and John Norton, 1610.

Caulfield, Richard, ed. The council book of Cork. Guildford, 1876.

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The description of Ireland, and the state thereof as it is in this present, in anno 1598, ed. Edmund Hogan. Dublin: Gill, 1878.

Docwra, Sir Henry. A narration of the services done by the army ymployed to Lough-Foyle..., in John O'Donovan, ed., Miscellany of the Celtic Society. Dublin: Celtic Society, 1849.

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Holinshed, Raphael. The...chronicles of England, Scotlande and Irelande..., ed. John Hooker et al. London: H. Denham, 1587. See especially John Hooker, alias Vowell, 'The description, conquest, inhabitation, and troublesome estate of Ireland...continued from the death of King Henrie the eight untill this present time [1586]', vol. ii.

McNeill, Charles. 'Lord Chancellor Gerrard's notes of his report on Ireland, 1577-8', Analecta Hibernica, 2 (1931): 93-291.

Mercator, Gerard. 'Map of Ireland', in Atlas, iii. Dusseldorf, 1595.

Meyers, J. P., ed. Elizabethan Ireland: a selection of writings by Elizabethan writers on Ireland. Hamden, Conn., 1983.

Moryson, Fynes. An Itinerary... London: John Beale, 1617, 3 parts. See The Irish sections of Fynes Moryson's unpublished Itinerary, ed. Graham Kew. Dublin: Irish Manuscripts Commission, 1998.

Nicholls, Kenneth W. The Irish Fiants of the Tudor Sovereigns During the Reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Philip & Mary, and Elizabeth I. Dublin: Edmund Burke, 1994.

Ortelius, Abraham. 'Map of Ireland', in Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. Antwerp, 1572.

Perrot, James. The Chronicle of Ireland, 1584-1608. Ed. Herbert Wood. Dublin: Irish Manuscripts Commission, 1933.

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Petty, William. The history of the survey of Ireland commonly called the Down Survey, by Doctor William Petty, A. D. 1655-6. Ed. T. A. Larcom. Dublin: Irish Archaeological Society, 1851; facsimile repr., London: Routledge/Thoemmes Press, 1997.

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Rich, Barnaby. A new description of Ireland: wherein is described the disposition of the Irish. London: W. Jaggard for T. Adams, 1610.

Rich, Barnaby. A short survey of Ireland. Truely discovering who hath armed that people with disobedience. London: N. Okes for B. Sutton and W. Barenger, 1609.

S., E. C. The government of Ireland under Sir John Perrot, 1584-8. London: A. Mathewes for T. Walkley, 1626.

Sidney State Papers, 1565-70. Ed. Tomás.Ó Laidhin. Dublin: Irish Manuscripts Commission, 1962.

Additional Sidney state papers, 1566-70. Ed David B. Quinn. Analecta Hibernica, 26 (1970): 89-102.

Speed, John. The theatre of the empire of Great Britain. London: William Hall, 1611-12.

Spenser, Edmund. A view of the present state of Ireland, vol. 10 of The Works of Edmund Spenser, A Variorum Edition. Ed. Edwin Greenlaw, Charles Grosvenor Osgood, and Frederick Morgan Padelford. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1935.

The statutes at large passed in the parliaments held in Ireland... Dublin: George Grierson, 1786-1804. 21 vols.

Steele, R. R. A bibliography of royal proclamations of the Tudor and Stuart sovereigns and of others published under their royal authority, 1485-1714. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1910. 2 vols.

[Ulster] A plot of the six escheated counties of Ulster[c. 1610]. A facsimile of BL Cotton MS Augustus I.ii.44. Analecta Hibernica, 8 (1938): facing 298.

Ulster and other Irish maps, c. 1600. Ed. G. A. Hayes-McCoy. Dublin: Irish Manuscripts Commission, 1964.

The Walsingham Letter-Book, Or Register of Ireland, May, 1578 to December, 1579. Ed. James Hogan and N. McNeill O'Farrell. Dublin: Irish Manuscripts Commission, 1959.

Ware, James. Two Histories of Ireland. Dublin: 1633; facsimile repr. New York, Da Capo Press, 1971.

Youngs, Frederic A., Jr. The Proclamations of the Tudor Queens. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

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Andrews, J. H. 'Geography and government in Elizabethan Ireland'. Irish Geographical Studies. Ed. N. Stephens. Belfast, 1970, pp. 178-91.

Andrews, K. R., Nicholas P. Canny, and P. E. H. Blair, eds. The Westward Enterprise: English Activities in Ireland, the Atlantic and America. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1978.

Bagwell, Richard. Ireland under the Tudors: with a succinct account of the earlier history. London: Longmans, Green, 1885-90. Reprinted London, 1963.

Bowden, P. J. The Wool Trade in Tudor and Stuart England. London, 1962.

Bradshaw, Brendan. The Irish Constitutional Revolution of the Sixteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Brady, Ciaran. 'Faction and the origins of the Desmond rebellion of 1579'. Irish Historical Studies, 22 (1980): 289-312.

Brady, Ciaran. 'Conservative subversives: the community of the Pale and the Dublin administration, 1556-86', in Radicals, Rebels and Establishments. Ed. P. J. Corish. Historical Studies, 15 (1985): 11-32.

Brady, Ciaran, and Raymond Gillespie, eds. Natives and Newcomers: Essays on the Making of Irish Colonial Society, 1534-1641. Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 1986.

Canny, Nicholas. The Elizabethan Conquest of Ireland: a pattern established, 1565-76. Hassocks, Sussex: The Harvester Press, 1976.

Canny, Nicholas. The Formation of the Old English Elite in Ireland. Dublin, 1975.

Canny, Nicholas. The Upstart Earl: a Study of the Social and Mental World of Richard Boyle, First Earl of Cork. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

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Canny, Nicholas. From Reformation to Restoration: Ireland 1534-1660. Dublin: Helicon, 1987.

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Political Philosophy in Spenser's Poetry
In Progress: use at your own risk

Anderson, Judith H. '"Nor Man It Is": the Knight of Justice in Book V of Spenser's Faerie Queene.' Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, 85 (1970): 65-77.

Anderson, Judith H. 'The Antiquities of Fairyland and Ireland'. Journal of English and Germanic Philology, 86 (1987):199-214.

Anderson, Judith H., Donald Cheney and David A. Richardson. Spenser's Life and the Subject of Biography. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1996.

Anderson, Judith H. 'Weighing Words with Spenser's Giant', in Soundings of Things Done: Essays in Early Modern Literature in Honor of S. K. Heninger, Jr. Ed. Peter E. Medine and Josepth Wittreich. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1997, pp. 70-92.

Arden, J. 'Rug-Headed Irish Kerns and British Poets.' New Statesman (July 13, 1979): 56-57.

Baker, David J. '"Some Quirk, Some Subtle Evasion": Legal Subversion in Spenser's A View of the Present State of Ireland.' Spenser Studies, 6 (1986): 147-163.

Bradshaw, Brendan. 'Edmund Spenser on Justice and Mercy', in The Writer as Witness. Ed. Tom Dunne. Cork: Cork University Press, 1987, pp. 76-89.

Bradshaw, Brendan. 'Robe and Sword in the Conquest of Ireland', in Law and Government under the Tudors: Essays presented to Sir Geoffrey Elton on his retirement. Ed. C. Cross, D. Loades, and J. J. Scarisbrick. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988, pp. 139-162.

Bradshaw, Brendan, Andrew Hadfield, and Willy Maley, eds. Representing Ireland: Literature and the origins of conflict, 1534-1660. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Brady, Ciaran. 'Spenser's Irish Crisis: Humanism and Experience in the 1590s'. Past and Present, 111 (1986): 17-49.

Brady, Ciaran. 'The Road to the View: On the Decline of Reform Thought in Tudor Ireland', in Spenser and Ireland: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Ed. Patricia Coughlan. Cork: Cork University Press, pp. 25-45.

Breen, John. 'The Faerie Queene, Book I and the Theme of Protestant Exile. Irish University Review, 26 (1996): 226-236.

Carroll, Clare. 'The Construction of Gender and the Cultural and Political Other in The Faerie Queene 5 and A View of the Present State of Ireland: The Critics, the Context, and the Case of Radigund'. Criticism, 32 (1990): 163-91.

Cavanagh, Sheila T. '"Such Was Irena's Countenance": Ireland in Spenser's Prose and Poetry'. Texas Studies in Language and Literature, 28 (1986): 24-50.

Coughlan, Patricia. '"Some secret scourge which shall by her come unto England": Ireland and Incivility in Spenser.' Spenser and Ireland: an Interdisciplinary Perspective. Ed. Patricia Coughlan. Cork: Cork University Press, 1989, pp. 46-74.

Fogarty, Anne. 'The Colonization of Language: Narrative Strategies in A View of the Present State of Ireland and The Faerie Queene, Book VI,' in Patricia Coughlan, ed., Spenser and Ireland: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Cork: Cork University Press, 1989, pp. 75-108.

Fowler, Alastair. 'Spenser and war', in War, Literature and the Arts in Sixteenth-Century Europe. Ed. J. R. Mulryne and M. Shewing. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1989, pp. 147-64.

Fowler, Elizabeth. 'The Failure of Moral Philosophy in the Work of Edmund Spenser'. Representations, 51 (1995): 47-76.

Fumerton, Patricia. 'Exchanging Gifts: The Elizabethan Currency of Children and Poetry'. ELH, 53 (1986): 241-78

Gillingham, John. 'The English Invasion of Ireland.' Representing Ireland: Literature and the origins of conflict, 1534-1660. Ed. Brendan Bradshaw, Andrew Hadfield, and Willy Maley. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, pp. 24-42.

Graziani, Rene. 'Elizabeth at Isis Church.' Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, 79 (1964): 376-389.

Greenlaw, Edwin. 'Spenser and the Earl of Leicester.' Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, 25 (1910): 535-561.

Greenlaw, Edwin. 'Spenser and British Imperialism.' Modern Philology, 9 (1912): 1-24.

Greenlaw, Edwin. Studies in Spenser's Historical Allegory. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1932.

Grennan, Eamon. 'Language and Politics: A Note on Some Metaphors in Spenser's A View of the Present State of Ireland'. Spenser Studies, 3 (1982): 99-110.

Gross, Kenneth. 'Mythmaking in Hibernia: A View of the Present State of Ireland'. Spenserian Poetics: Idolatry, Iconoclasm, and Magic. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1985, pp. 78-109

Hadfield, Andrew. 'Spenser, Ireland, and Sixteenth-Century Political Theory.' Modern Language Review, 89 (1994): 1-18.

Hadfield, Andrew. 'The Course of Justice: Spenser, Ireland and Political Discourse'. Studia Neophilologica, 65 (1993):187-96.

Hadfield, Andrew. 'Briton and Scythian: Tudor representations of Irish origins'. Irish Historical Studies, 28 (1993): 390-408

Hadfield, Andrew. Literature, Politics and National Identity: Reformation to Renaissance Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Hadfield, Andrew, and John McVeagh. Strangers to That Land: British Perceptions of Ireland from the Reformation to the Famine. Colin Smythe: Gerrards Cross, Buckinghamshire, 1994.

Hadfield, Andrew. '"The 'sacred hunger of ambitious minds": Spenser's savage religion'. Religion, Literature, and Politics in Post-Reformation England,1540-1688. Ed. Donna B. Hamilton and Richard Strier. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 27-45.

Hadfield, Andrew. 'The Trials of Jove: Spenser's Irish Allegory and the Mastery of the Irish'. Bullán, 4 (1996): 1-15.

Hadfield, Andrew. '"The Naked and the dead": Elizabethan perceptions of Ireland'. Travel and Drama in Shakespeare's Time. Ed. Jean-Pierre Maquerlot and Michèle Willems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 32-54.

Hadfield, Andrew. Edmund Spenser's Irish Experience: Wilde Fruit and Salvage Soyl. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997.

Heale, Elizabeth. 'Spenser's Malengine, Missionary Priests, and the Means of Justice.' The Review of English Studies, 151 (1990): 171-184.

Heberle, Mark. 'Aristotle and Spenser's Justice'. Studia Neophilologica, 63 (1991): 169-173.

Heffner, Ray. 'Essex and Book Five of The Faerie Queene'. English Literary History, 3 (1936): 67-82.

Helgerson, Richard. Forms of Nationhood: The Elizabethan Writing of England. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Henley, Pauline. Spenser in Ireland. Cork: Cork University Press, 1928.

Highley, Christopher. Shakespeare, Spenser, and the Crisis in Ireland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Hill, Tracey. 'Humanism and Homicide: Spenser's A View of the Present State of Ireland'. Irish Studies Review, 4 (1993): 2-4.

Hulbert, Viola B. 'Spenser's Relation to Certain Documents on Ireland.' Modern Philology, 34 (1937): 345-353.

Jardine, Lisa. 'Encountering Ireland: Gabriel Harvey, Edmund Spenser, and English colonial ventures.' Representing Ireland: Literature and origins of conflict, 1534-1660. Ed. Brendan Bradshaw, Andrew Hadfield, and Willy Maley. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, pp. 60-75.

Jenkins, Raymond. 'Spenser and Ireland,' That Soveraine Light: Essays in Honor of Edmund Spenser 1552-1952. Ed. W. R. Meuller and D. C. Allen. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1952, pp. 51-62.

Jones, Ann Rosalind, and Peter Stallybrass. 'Dismantling Irena: the sexualising of Ireland in early modern England', Nationalisms and Sexualities. Ed. Andrew Parker et al. London: Routledge, 1992, pp. 157-71.

Jones, H. S. V. 'Spenser's Defense of Lord Grey.' University of Illinois Studies in Language and Literature, 5 (1919): 7-75.

Jones, H. S. V. A Spenser Handbook. New York: F. S. Crofts & Co., 1930.

Kermode, Frank. 'The Faerie Queene, I and V.' Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, 47 (1965): 123-150.

Klein, Bernhard. 'English Cartographers and the Mapping of Ireland in the Early Modern Period'. Journal for the Study of British Cultures, 2 (1995): 115-139.

Klein, Bernhard. '"And quickly make that, which was nothing at all": English National Identity and the Mapping of Ireland'. Nationalismus und Subjektivität, Mitteilungen Beiheft 2. Frankfurt am Main: Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Zentrum zur Erforschung der Fröhen Neuzeit, 1995, pp. 200-226.

Levack, Brian P. 'Law and Ideology: The Civil Law and Theories of Absolutism in Elizabethan and Jacobean England.' The Historical Renaissance: New Essays on Tudor and Stuart Literature and Culture. Ed. Richard Strier and Heather Dubrow. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.

Lewis, C. S. 'Spenser's Irish Experiences and The Faerie Queene.' English Literary Renaissance, 7 (1931): 83-85.

Lim, Walter S. H. 'Figuring Justice: Imperial Ideology and the Discourse of Colonialism in Book V of The Faerie Queene and A View of the Present State of Ireland'. Renaissance and Reformation, 19 (1995): 45-67

Lupton, Julia. 'Home-making in Ireland: Virgil's Eclogue I and Book VI of The Faerie Queene'. Spenser Studies, 8 (1990): 119-45.

Lupton, Julia. 'Mapping mutability: or, Spenser's Irish plot'. Representing Ireland: Literature and the Origins of Conflict 1534-1660. Ed. Brendan Bradshaw, Andrew Hadfield, and Willy Maley. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, pp. 93-115.

Maley, Willy. A Spenser Chronology. Lanham, Maryland: Barnes and Noble, 1994.

Maley, Willy. Salvaging Spenser: Colonialism, Culture and Identity. Basingstoke: Macmillan Press, 1997.

McCabe, Richard A. 'The Masks of Duessa: Spenser, Mary Queen of Scots, and James VI.' English Literary Renaissance, 17.2 (1987): 224-242.

McCabe, Richard A. 'The Fate of Irena: Spenser and Political Violence.' Spenser and Ireland: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Ed. Patricia Coughlan. Cork: Cork University Press, 1989.

McCabe, Richard A. 'Edmund Spenser, Poet of Exile', Proceedings of the British Academy, 80 (1991): 73-103.

Ní Chuilleanáin, Eiléan. 'Forged and Fabulous Chronicles: Reading Spenser as an Irish Writer'. Irish University Review, 26.2 (1996): 237-251.

O'Connell, Michael. Mirror and Veil: the Historical Dimension of Spenser's Faerie Queene. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1977.

Phillips, James E. 'Renaissance Concepts of Justice and the Structure of The Faerie Queene, Book V.' Huntington Library Quarterly, 33.2 (1970): 103-120.

Smith, Roland M. 'Spenser's Irish River Stories.' Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, 50, (1935): 1047-1056.

Smith, Roland M. 'Una and Duessa'. Publications of the Modern Language Association of America 50, (1935): 917-919.

Smith, Roland M. 'Spenser's Tale of the Two Sons of Milesio.' Modern Language Quarterly, 3 (1942): 547-557.

Smith, Roland M. 'More Irish Words in Spenser.' Modern Language Notes, 59 (1944): 472-477.

Smith, Roland M. 'Spenser, Holinshed, and the Leabhar Gabhala.' Journal of English and Germanic Philology, 43 (1944): 390-401.

Smith, Roland M. 'Spenser's "Stony Aubrian"'. Modern Language Notes, 59 (1944): 1-5.

Smith, Roland M. 'A further note on Una and Duessa'. Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, 61 (1946): 592-596.

Smith, Roland M. 'Irish Names in The Faerie Queene.' Modern Language Notes, 61 (1946): 27-38.

Stillman, Robert E. 'Spenserian Autonomy and the Trial of New Historicism: Book Six of The Faerie Queene'. English Literary Renaissance, 22 (1992): 299-314.

Stump, Donald V. 'Isis Versus Mercilla: The Allegorical Shrines in Spenser's Legend of Justice.' Spenser Studies, 3 (1982): 87-98.

Stump, Donald V. 'The Two Deaths of Mary Stuart: Historical Allegory in Spenser's Book of Justice.' Spenser Studies, 9 (1988): 81-105.

Suttie, Paul. 'Edmund Spenser's Political Pragmatism.' Studies in Philology, 95 (1998): 56-76.

Teskey, Gordon. 'Mutability, Genealogy, and the Authority of Forms.' Representations, 41 (1993): 104-122.

Watanabe-O'Kelly, Helen. 'Edmund Spenser and Ireland: A Defence.' Poetry Nation Review, 6 (1980): 16-19.

Welply, W. H. 'Spenser in Ireland.' Times Literary Supplement, 32 (18 May, 1933): 348.

West, Michael. 'Spenser's Art of War: Chivalric Allegory, Military Technology, and the Elizabethan Mock-Heroic Sensibility'. Renaissance Quarterly, 41 (1988): 654-704.

Westerweel, Bart. 'Astrophel and Ulster: Sidney's Ireland'. The Clash of Ireland: Literary Contrasts and Connections. Ed. C. C. Barfoot and Theo D'haen. Amsterdam: Rodopi Press, 1989, pp. 5-22.

Wilson, F. P. 'Spenser and Ireland.' English Literary Renaissance, 2 (1926): 456-457.

Woodworth, Mary K. 'The Mutability Cantos and the Succession'. Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, 59 (1944): 985-1002.

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