Ro Cecill
G. Hume


This booke was written
by Edward Spencer Clarke
of the Counsell of the pro=
vince of Mounster in Irland
in anno 1596.
A vewe of the present state of Ireland
discoursed by waie of a dialogue betwene
Eudoxus & Irenius.

Eudox: But if that Cuntrye of Ireland whence ye latelie come b[e]
soe goodlie and comodious a soyle as ye reporte, I wonder that
noe Course is taken for the turninge therof to good vses, & reducing[e]
that salvage nation to better governement & ciuilitye, Iren. Mary
soe there have ben diuerse good plottes deviz'd & wise Counsells
Caste alreadie about reformacion of that Realme, but they saye
it is the fatall destenye of that Land that noe purposes whatso[euer]
are meant for her good will prosper or take good effecte. which
whether it proceed from the verie Genius of the soyle or influen[ce]
of the Lawes, or that almightie god hathe not yet appointed the
tyme of her reformacion or that he reserveth her in this vnquiet
state till, for some secrett scourge which shall by her Come vn[to]
England, it is harde to be knowne, but yett muche to be feared.
Eudox Surelie I suppose this but a vayne Conceipte of simple
men which Iudge thinges by their effectes and not by there cause[s]
for I would rather thinke the cause of this evill which hangeth
vppon that Cuntrye to proceed rather of the vnsoundnesse
of the Counsells & plottes which yowe saie haue ben oftentymes
Laid for her reformacion; or of fayntnesse in followinge an[d]
effecting the same, then of anie soche fatall course or appoint=
of god (as you misdeme) but it is the manner of men, that whe[n]
they are fallen into anie absurditie or there accions succede
not as they would, they are redie allwaies to impute the
blame therof vnto the heavens, soe to excuse there owne
follies and imperfeccions. Soe have I alsoe heard it often wishe[d]
(even of some whose greate wisdome in opinion should sem[e]
to iudge more soundlie of soe weightie a Consideracion) th[at]
all that Land were a seapoole,: which kynde of speche is
the manner rather of desperate men farr driven to wishe
the vtter ruyne of that which they cannot redresse then of
grave counsellers which ought to thinke nothinge soe harde bu[t]
that thoroughe wisdom maie be maistred and subdued,
since the Poete saithe that the wise man shall Rule even
over the starres, muche more over the earthe, for were it not [the]
parte of a desperate phisition to wishe his diseased pacient, rath[er]
to applie the best endevor of his skill for his recoverye, But

since we are soe farre entred, let vs I praye yowe a litle
devise of those eviles by which that cuntry is helde in this
wretched case, that it cannot as yowe saie be recured
And if it be not painefull to yowe tell vs what thinges
duringe your late continuance there ye observed to be moste
offensive & impeachfull vnto good rule & government therof.
Iren: Surelie, Eudoxus, the evills which ye desier to be
recounted, are verie manie & allmoste countable with those
which were hidden in the Baskett of Pandora, but since ye
soe please I will out of that infinite nombre reckon but
some that are moste capitall & comenly occurrent
bothe in the lief & Condicions of private men, and alsoe
in the meane age of publique affaiers & pollicie, The
which ye shall vnderstand to be of diuerse natures as I
observed them, for some of them are of verie greate
antiquitie & longe countynuance, others nowe late & of
lesse endurance, others dailie grow uppe & encreasinge
Contynually as there evill occasions are euerie daie offred:
Eudox Tell them then I praie y[owe in the] same ordre
that ye have now rehearsed them [for] theare can be
noe better methode then this which the [verie] matter it
self offreth, and when ye have reckoned all the evills
lett vs heare your opynion for redressinge of them
after which there will perhapps if it self appere
some Reasonable waie to settle a sounde & perfecte
Rule of gouernement by shunnynge the former evills & followinge
the offred good, The which methode wee maie lerne of
the wise Phisicions, which firste requier that the malady
be knowne thoroughlie & dyscouered: afterwardes doe
teache howe to Cure & redresse it: And lastlie doe
prescribe a diet with straight rules & ordres to bee daily
observed for feare of relapse into the former disease or
fallinge into some other more dangerous then it /.
Iren. I will then accordinge to your advisement begynne
to declare the evills which seme to me most hurtfull
to the Comen ••••• well of that land and first those which I
said were most auncient, & longe growen, And they also


are of thre kyndes, the firste in the Lawes, the second in
customs, the last in religion.
Eudox. whie Irenius can there be anie evill in the lawes can
the thinges which are ordeyned for the good & safetye of
all, turne to the evill & hurte of them: This well I wote
bothe in that state & in all other that were they not conteyned
in dewtye with feare of Lawe which restrayneth offences &
inflicteth sharpe punishment to misdoers, noe man should
enioye anie thinge euerye mans hand woulde be against
an other, Therfore in fyndeing fault with the lawes I
doubt ye shall muche overshoot your selfe & make me the
more disleik your other dislikes of that governement.
Iren. The Lawes Eudoxus I doe not blame for them
selves knowinge right well that all Lawes are ordeyned
for the good of the comen wele and for repressinge of
Licensiousnous & vice, but it falleth out in lawes noe otherwi[se]
••••• then it dothe in Phisicke which was att the first devised
& is yett dailye meant & ministered for the good health
of the patient, but nevertheles wee often see that thorough
ignoraunce of the disease or vnseasonable meate of the
tyme or other accident comynge betwen, in steade of good
it wourketh hurt, and out of one evill throweth the
patient into manie miseries: Soe the lawes were att the
firste entended for the reformacion of abuses. and peacea[ble]
contynuance of the subiect, but are sithence either
disanulled or quite prevaricated thoroughe change and
alteracion of tymes yett are they good still in them
selues, but to that comen wealth which is rulid by them
they worke not that good which they should, & sometymes
alsoe perhaps that evill which they would not.
Eudox whither doe yowe meane this by the comen lawe
of the realme or by the statute Lawes & Actes of
parliamentes. /
Iren. Surelie by them bothe, for even the comen Lawe being
that which William of Normandy brought in with his conquest
and laid vppon the necke of England, thoughe it perhaps
fitted well with the state of England then beinge, and
was redilye obeyed throughe the power of the commander
which hadd before subdued the people vnto him & made easie

waye to the sttlinge of his will, yett with the state of Ireland
peradventure it dothe not soe well agree, beinge a
people alltogither stubborne & vntamed, or yf it were
ever tamed, yett nowe latelie havinge quite shaken of ther
yokes & broken the bandes of their obedience for England
beefore the entraunce of the conqueror was a peaceable
kingdome, & but latelie envrid to the mylde & goodlye
governement of K. Edward surnamed the Confessor, besides
nowe latelie growen vnto a loathinge & detestacion of
the vniuste & tyranous rule of harolde an vsurper which
made them the more willinge to accept of anie reason=
=able conditions & ordre of the newe victor thinckinge
surelie that it coulde be noe worse then the later,
and hopeinge well it would be as good as the former
yett what the proof of the firste bringinge in and
establishinge of those Lawes was, was to manie full
bitterlie made knowne, but with Ireland it is far
otherwise for it is a nacion ever acquainted with
warres thoughe but amongst them selues, and in
their owne kynde of militare discipline trayned vp
even from their youthes, which they have never yet
ben taughe to laye aside nor made to lerne obedience
vnto Lawe scarslye to knowe the name of Lawe but
in steade therof have allwayes preserved & kept
their owne Lawe which is the Brehon Lawe:
Eudox what is that which ye call the Brehon Lawe it
is a worde to vs alltogether vnknowne.
Iren. It is a certen rule of right vnwritten but deliuered
by tradicion from one to an other, in which oftentymes there
appereth great showe of equitye in determyninge the
right betwene partie & partie, but in manie thinges repugning
quite bothe to godes lawe & mans as for ensample in the
Case of murder Brehon, that is their Iudge will compound
betwen the murderer & the frendes of the partie murdered
which prosecute the accion, that the malefactor shall
geive vnto them, or to the Childe or wief of him that
is slayne a recompence which they call an Iriach.
by which vyle lawe of theirs manie murders are amongst
them made vpp and smoothed. And this Iudge beinge as
he is called the lordes Brehon, adiudgeth for the most
part a better share vnto his Lorde-that is the lorde
of the soile or the heade of that sept, and alsoe vnto


him self for his Iudgment a greater portion, then vnto plaintifs, or
parties greived. / Eudox This is a most wicked lawe in deed
but I truste it is not nowe vsed in Ireland, since the King[es]
of England have hadd the absolute dominion therof and
establyshed there owne Lawes there. /
Iren. yes truly for there be manie voyde Cuntries in Irela[nde]
in which the Lawes of England were never establyshed no[r]
anie acknowledgment of subiection made, and alsoe evene
in those which are subdued and sene to acknowledge
subiection yett the same Brehon Lawe is illy practised
amongest them selues by reason that dwellnge as they doe
whole nations and septs of the Irishe togither withoute
anie Englishe man amongest them they maie doe what
they liste & compound or alltogither conceall amongest
them selues their owne crimes of which noe notice can be
hadd by them which would & might amend the same by the
Rule of the Lawes of Ingland /.
Eudox what is this which yowe saie, And is theare anie parte
of that Realme or anie nation therin which have not
yett ben subdued to the Crowne of Ingland? ded not the
whole Realme vniuersally accept and acknowledge our late
prince of famous memory henry the viijth for their only
kinge and liedge Lorde /.
Iren. yes verily in a parliament holden in the tyme of Sir
Ant St Leger then Lord deputie, all the Irishe Lordes &
principall men came in and beinge by faier meanes
incought therunto acknowledged k henry for their soueraigne
Lord, reservinge yett (as some saye) vnto them selues all
their owne former priviledges & signories inviolate. /
Eudox Then by that acceptance of his soveraintye they all
accepted •••••••• of his Lawes. whie then shoulde any
other Lawes be nowe vsed amongest them /.
Iren. True it is that therebie they bound them selues to
his obedience & in case it hadd ben followed vppon them
as it should have ben and a gouernment thervppon presently (?)
settled amongest them agreable therunto, they should have
bene reduced to perpetuall ciuilitie and contayned in
continuall dutye, But what bootes it to breake a Colte &
to lett him streight runn loose att random, Soe were this
people att firste well handeled & wisely brought to acknowle[ge]
alleageance to the kinges of England, but beinge streight left

vnto them selues and to there owne inordinate lief and
manners they eftsoones forgott what before they were
taughte, and soe soone as they were out of sighte
by them selues shooke of there bridles & began to Colte
a newe more licentiously then before.
Eudox. It is greate pittie that soe good an opportunity
was omitted, and soe happie an occasion foreslacked that
might have bredd the eternall good of that Lande
But doe they not still acknowledge that submission.
Iren. Noe they doe not for nowe the heiers & posteritie
of them which yeilded the same are as as they saye
either ignorant therof or doe wilfully denye or
steadfastly disavowe.
Eudox Howe can they soe doe ••• iustlye, dothe not the
acts of the parent in anie lawfull grant or conveyans
bynde his heyers soe ever therunto, Since then the
Auncestors of these that nowe lyve yeilded them selues
then subiectes & legemen, shall it not tye their children
to the same subiection.
Iren They saie noe for their Auncestors hadd noe
estate in anie their Landes Segniories or hereditament
longer then duringe their owne lives as they alleadge
soe all the Irishe doe holde their land by Tamistry
which is to saye they have noe more but a personall
estate for his lief time that is tamist, by reason
that he is admitted therunto by eleccion of the
Cuntry /.
Eudox what is this which yowe call Tamist and
Tamistry. They be names & termes never harde
of nor knowne •• •• vnto vs.
Iren. It is a Custome amongest all the Irishmen that
presently after the deathe of anie their cheiffe
Lordes or Capteines they doe presently assemble
them selues to a place generallie appointed and
knowne vnto them and to choose an other in his stead
wheare they doe nomynate & elect for the most
part not the eldest sonne nor anie of the children
of their lord disceassed but the next to him of blood
that is the eldest & wourthiest as comenly the next


brother vnto him if he have anie or the nexte Cousen
germane or soe forthe as anie is elder in that kindred
or sept. and then next •••• to him doe they chose the
next of blood to be Tanist whoe shall next succeed him
in the said Captenery if he lyve therunto.
Eudox doe they vse anie Cerimony in this elleccion for all
Barbarous nations are comenly great observors ••••• of
Cerimonyes & superstitious Rites /.
Iren They vse to place him that shalbe their Capteine vppon
a stone allwaies observed for that purpose & placed
comenly vppon a hill, in manie of the which I have sene
the foote of a man formed & Ingraved which they saye
was the measuer of their first Capteines fote wheron
he standinge receyveth an oathe to preserve all former
Auncient Customes of the Cuntry inviolable & to deliuer
vpp the succession peaceably to his Taniste and then
hathe a wande deliured vnto him by some whose
proper office that is. after which discendinge from the
stone he turneth him self Rounde thrise forwarde
and thrise backwarde
Eudox But howe is the Tanist chosen
Iren They saie he setteth but one foote vppon the
stone & receyveth the leike oathe that the Capteyne ded
Eudox: have yowe euer heard what was the occasion
& firste begyninge of this custome for it is good to knowe
the same & maie perhaps discouer some secrete meaninge &
intent therin verie materiall to the state of that
gournement /
Iren •••• I have heard that the begininge & Cause of
this ordinance amongest the Irishe was speciallye
for the defence & maynetenence of their Landes in
their possteritie & for excludinge all innovation ••••••
or •••••••••• alienacion therof vnto Straungers and
speciallie to the Englishe for when their Capteine
dieth, if the Seignory should discende to his childe
& he perhaps an infant anie other might peradventure
stepp in betwene or thrust him out by stronge hande

beinge then vnable to defende his Right or to withstand
the force of a forrayner: and therfore they doe
appoint the eldest of the kin to have the Seignorye
for that he comenly is a man of stronger yeris &
better experience to mayneteyne the inheritance &
to defende the Cuntry either against the next borderinge
Lorde which vse comenly to encroche one vppon an other
as eache one is stronger, or againste the Englishe
which they thinke lie still in wayte to wype them out
of their Landes & territories, and to this ende the
Taniste is allwaies readie knowne if it shoulde
happen the Capteine suddenly to die or to be slayne
in battall or to be out of the Cuntry to defende &
kepe it from all doubtes and dangers for which
Cause the Taniste hathe alsoe a share of the contry
allotted vnto him & certen Cuttinges & spendinges
vppon the Inhabituntes vnder the lorde /
Eudox when I heare this worde Tanist it bringeth
to my remembrance what I have redd of Tania, that
it should signifie a province or segniory as aquitania
Lusitania and Britania. the which some doe thincke
to be deryved of Dania: that is from the danes
but I thincke amis but sure it semeth that it cam
Aunciently from those Barbarous nations that overan
the worlde which possessed those dominions wherof
they are nowe soe Called And soe it maie well
that from thence the firste originall of this
worde Tanist & Tanistry came & the customs therof
hath sithens as manie others ells bene contynued But
to that generall subiection of the Land wherof wee formerly
spake me semes that this custome or tenure canne
be noe barre nor impeachment beinge that in open
parliament by their said acknoweledgment they wayed
the benefitt therof and submitted them selues to the
ordinance of their newe soveraigne.
Iren yea but they saye as I earst tolde yowe that
they reserved their tytles tenures and seignoryes
hole & sounde to them selues & for proof alledge


that they have ever synce remayned to them vntowched
Soe as nowe to alter them should they saye be a
greate wronge /
Eudox what remedie is theare then or meanes to avoyde
this Inconvenience, for without firste Cuttinge of this
daungerous Custome it semeth hard to plant anie
sound ordinance or reduce them to a ciuill gouernement since
all their ill customes are permitted vnto them.
Iren Surely nothing•••e hard. for by this Acte of parliament
wherof wee speake, nothinge was geiven to kynge
henry which he hadd not before for his Auncestors
but onlye the bare name of a kinge for all other
absolute power of principallity he hadd in him self
before deryved from manie former kinges his famous
progenitours & wourthie conquerours of that Lande,
The which sythens they firste conquerid & by force
subdued vnto them, what neede afterwardes to enter into
anie soche ydle termes with them to be Callid their kinge
when as it is in the power of the Conqueror to take
vppon him self what title he will over his dominions
conquerid for all is the conquerors, as Tully to Brutus
saithe, Therfore me semes in steade of soe greate &
meritorious a service as they boaste they performed to
the kinge in bringeinge all the Irishe to acknowledg[e]
him for their liedge, they ded great hurt vnto his title
& have lefte a perpetuall gall in the mynde of that
people whoe before beinge absolutely bounde to his
obedience are nowe tied but with termes wheras ells
bothe their lives their Landes and their liberties were
in his free power to appoint what termes what
Lawes what Condicions he wolde ouer them which
were all his. against which their Could be noe rightfu[ll]
resistance or if there were he might when he wolde
establyshe them with a stronger hande /..
Eudox yea, but perhaps it semed better vnto that nob[le]
kinge to bringe them by their owne accorde to his
obedience and to plant a peaceable gouernement
amongest them then by soche violent meanes to pluck
them vnder, Neither yett hathe he therby loste anie thing[e]
that h[e]

that he formerly hadd for havinge all before absolutely
in his owne power it remaynethe soe still vnto
him, he havinge neither forgeiven nor forgone anie
thinge therbie vnto them but have receyved somethinge
from them that is a more voluntary & loyall
subiection soe as her Maiestie maie yett when it
shall please her alter anie thinge of these
former Ordinances or appointe other lawes, that maye
be more bothe for her owne behoof & for the good
of that people.
Iren. Not soe for it is not soe easye nowe that
thinges are growen into an habit & have there
certen course to •• chaunge the Chanell and turne
their streames an other waie for they maie
have nowe a cullourable pretence to withstande
soche innovacion havinge accepted of other lawes and
Rules alreadye /.
Eudox But yow saie they doe not accept of them
but delighte rather to Leane to their oulde
Customes & Brehon Lawes, thoughe they be muche
more vniust & alsoe more inconvenient for the comen
people, as by your Late relation of them I gatherid
As for the Lawes of England they are surely moste
iuste and most agreable bothe with the gouernement
and with the nature of the people howe falles
it then that yowe seme to disleike of them as not soe
meet for that Realme of Ireland and not only
the comen lawe but alsoe the statutes & Actes of
Parliament which were especiallie provided and
entended for thonlye benefytt therof /.
Iren: I was about to have tould yowe my Reason
therin but that your self drue me awaye withe
other questions, for I was shewinge by what meanes
& in what sorte the positive Lawes were firste
brought in and establyshed by the norman conqueror
which were not by him devised nor applied vnto
the state


the state of the realme then beinge nor as it might beste
be (as should by lawe givers principallye be regarded)
but were indede the verie lawes of his owne Cuntrye of
Normandye, the Condicion wherof howe farre it differeth
from this of England, it is apparant to eurie leaste
iudgment but to transferre the same Lawes for the
governinge of the Realme of Ireland was moche more
inconvenient & vnmeet for he founde a better advantage
of the tyme then was in the plantinge of them in
Ireland and followed the execution of them with more
severitye & was alsoe present in person to ouerlook
the Magistrates & overawe the subiectes with the terror of
his sworde and Countenance of his Maiestie but not soe
in Ireland soe they were otherwise affected and yet
doe soe remayne, soe as the same Lawes ought to be
fashioned vnto the manners and Condicion of the
people to whome they are meant and not to be
imposed vppon them accordinge to the simple Rule
of Right: soe then as I said in steade of good they
maie worke ill & pervert Iustice to extreame
iniusticie for he that would transferre the lawes
of the Lacedimonians to the people of Athenes
should fynde a greate absurditye & inconvenience
for those Lawes of Lacedimonia were devised by
lycurgus as most proper and best agreinge with that
people whome he knewe to be inclyned alltogither
to warres and therfore wholy trayned them vpp
even from their Cradles in Armes and militare
exercises cleane Contrary to the institution of Solon
whoe in his Lawes to the Athenians labored by
all meanes to temper their warleike corages with
sweete delightes of Learninge and sciences soe that
as muche as the one excelled in armes the other
exceded in knowledge The leike regarde & moderacion
ought to be hadd in temperinge & menaginge of this
stubborne nacion of the Irishe to bringe them from

theire delightes of licentious barbarisme vnto the
love of goodnes & Ciuilitie.
Eudox. I cannot howe they maye better bee then
by the discipline of the lawes of England for
the Inglishe were att the firste as stoute and
warlike a people as ever were the Irishe, and
yett yee see are nowe brought vnto that Ciuility
that noe nacion in the worldee excelleth them in
all goodlie Conversacion and all the studies of
knoweledge and humanitie.
Iren. what they nowe be bothe yowe and I see very
well, but by howe manie thornie and harde waies
they are Come therunto by howe manie Ciuille
broyles, by howe manie tumultuous rebellions that
even hazzard oftentymes the whole safetye of the kingdome
maye easely be conscidered all which they nevertheles
fayrelie overcame by Reason of the continuall
presence of their kinge whose ••••••• •••••••• ••
•••••• •• ••• ••••••••• ••• onelye person is oftymes
in steade of an army to contayne the vnruly people
from a thowsand evill occasions which that wretched
kingdome is for want therof is dailie carried into, the
which when soe they make heade noe Lawes noe pennaltys
can restrayne, but that they doe in the violence
of that furye treade downe & trample vnderfoote
all bothe devyne & humane thinges and the lawes
them selues they doe speciallie rage att & rende
in peices as most repugnant to their libertie and
naturall freedome which in their madnes thei affecte ./
Eudox It is then a verie vnseasonable tyme to plead
Lawe when swords are in the handes of the vulgare
or to thincke to retayne them with feare of pvnnishment
when they looke after libertie & shake of all gouernement;
Iren, Then soe it is with Ireland contynuallie, Eudoxus
for sworde was never yett out of their hande but
when they are weary with warres and brought
downe to extreame wretchednes then they crepe
a litle perhaps & sewe for grace till they have


Gotten newe breathe & recouered their strengthe againe, soe
as it is in vayne to speake of plantinge of Lawes &
plottinge pollicies till they be alltogither subdued /.
Eudox were they not soe at the firste conqueringe by
Strangbowe in the tyme of k. henry the seconde was
theare not a thoroughe waye then made by the sworde
for the imposinge of the Lawes vppon them, & were they
not then executed with soche a mightie hand as yowe
said was vsed by the norman Conqueror what oddes
is there then in this Case, whie shoulde not the same
Lawes take as good effecte in that people as they ded
here beinge in leike sorte prepared by the sworde
& brought vnder by extremitie, and whie shoulde they
not contynewe in as good force & vigor for the conteyninge
of the people /.
Iren The case yett is not leik, but there apperethe
great oddes betwene them for by the conquest of henry
the second true it is thatt the Irishe were vtterly
vanquished & subdued soe as noe enemy was hable
to holde vpp heade againste his power, in which there
weaknes he brought in his Lawes & settled them as
nowe they theare remayne, leike as William the Conqueror
ded soe as in thus muche they agree, but in the Reste
that is the Cheiffeste they vary, for to whome ded k.
henry the second impose those Lawes not to the Irishe
for the moste parte of them fledd from his power into
desartes & mountaynes leavinge the wyde Cuntrye
to the Conqueror whoe in their steade eftsoones
placed Englishemen whoe possessed all the lande
& ded quite shutt out the Irishe or the most parte of
them And to those newe Inhabitantes and Colonies he
gave his lawes, to weete the same Lawes vnder which
they were borne & bred the which it was noe difficulty
to place amongest them beinge formerly well envred
thervnto vnto whome afterwardes theare repared
diuerse of the pore distressed people of the Irishe
for succoure & releiff of whome soche as they thought
fytt for Laboure & industriouslye disposed as the most part
of theare

of theare baser sorte are, they receyved vnto them as ther
vassalls but scarslye ••• vouchsafed to imparte vnto
them the benefitt of those lawes vnder which them selues
lived but euerie one made his will and Comaundment a
Lawe vnto his owne vassall, Thus was not the
Lawe of Ingland ever properly applied vnto the
Irishe nacion as by a purposed plotte of gouernement
but as they Could insynuate & stealle them selues vnder
the same by theire Cariage and submission:
Eudox Howe Comes it then to passe that havinge bene
once soe lowe brought & thoroughlie subiected they
afterwardes lifted them selues soe setronglie vpp
againe & sithens doe stande soe stifflye againste
all rule & gouernement.
Iren They saye that they contynued in that
lowlienesse vntill the time that the diuision betwene
the two howses of Lancastar & yorke arose for the
Crowne of England at which time all the great
Englishe Lordes and gentleman which hadd greate
possessions in Ireland repaiered •••• over hither••
into England, some to succor there Frendes here
and to strengthen there partie soe to obtayne the
Crowne others to defend there Landes & possessions
here againste soche as hoverid after the same vppon
hope of the alteracion of the kingdome and
successe of that syde which they favoured and
affected, Then the Irishe whome they before
hadd banished into the mountaynes wheare they lived
onlye vppon white meates as it is recorded, salinge
nowe •••• there Landes soe dispeopled and weakened
came downe into the plaines adioyninge, and thence
expellinge those fewe Englishe that remayned repossessed
them againe, since which they have remayned in them
and • growinge greater have brought vnder them ••
manie of the Englishe which were before their lordes:
This was one of the occasions by which all those
Cuntries which lienge nere vnto anie mountaines or


or Irishe desartes hadd ben planted with Inglyshe were
shortlie displanted & loste, as namelie in Mounster all
the Landes adioyninge vnto Slewlogher Arlo & the bog
of Allon in Connaght all the Cuntreys borderinge vpp[on]
the Culvers Moneroo and orourkes Cuntry In Leinster
all the bandes neighbouringe vnto the mountaynes of
of Glanmalour vnto Shillehah vnto the Briskelah
and Polmont. In Vlster all the Cuntries nere vnto
Tirconell Tirowne & fertillah and the Scottes. /
Eudox Surelie this was a great violence but yett by
your speche it semeth that onely the Cuntryes and
vallies nere adioyninge vnto those mountaynes &
desartes were thus recovered by the Irishe, but howe
Comes it nowe that we see allmost all that Realme
repossessed of them, was there anie more soche
evill occasions growinge by the troubles of England
or ded the Irishe out of those places soe by them
gotten breake further & streatche them selues out
Thoroughe the wholle Lande for nowe for ought that
I cannott vnderstand theare is noe parte but the bare
Englishe pale in which the Irishe have not greatest
footeinge. / .
Iren Bothe out of these small begynninges by them gotten nere
the mountaynes ded they spreed them selues into the Inland
& alsoe to their further advantage theyr ded other leike
vnhappie accidentes happen out of England which gave hart
& good opportunitye to them to regaine their oulde
possessions, soe in the Raigne of k Edward the seconde
thinges remayned yett in the same state that they were
after the late Breakinge out of the Irishe which I spake
of and that noble Prince beganne to Caste an eye
•••• vnto Ireland and to mynde the reformacion of
thinges theare Runne amisse, for he sent over his
brother the wourthie duke of Clarence whoe havinge
married the heire of Lacie, and by her havinge all the

Earldome of Vlster & muche in meathe and mounster
verie Carefullie went about the redressinge of
all •••••• those late evills, and thoughe he Coulde
not beate out the Irishe againe by reason of his
shorte Countenance yet he ded shutt them vpp
within those narrowe Corners & Glennes vnder the
mountayne foote in whichby buildeinge stronge
houldes vppon euerie Bordre, and fortefieinge
all Passages, Amongest the which he builte the
Castle of Clare in Thamond of which Cuntrye he
hadd the Inherritaunce & of Mortimers Landes
adioyninge which is nowe by the Irishe Called
Killalowe) they lurked & kept them from breakinge
anie Further, But the tymes of that goode
kynge growinge alsoe troublesome, ded lett the
thoroughe reformacion of all thinges and therunto
soone after was added an other fatall mischeif
which wrought a greater Calamitie then all
the former For the seid duke of Clarence then
Lorde leifetenant of Ireland was by practize
of evill persons about the kinge •• his brother
called thence awaie and soone after by sinister
meanes was cleane made awaye, Presently
after whose deathe all the northe Revoltinge
ded sett vpp Oneale for their Capteine beinge
before that of smale power and Regarde and
theare arose in that parte of Thamond one of
the Obriens called Morroghen ranaghe that is
Morrice of the Ferne or waste wilde pleices whoe
gatheringe vnto him all the releckes of the discontented
Irishe, eftesoones surprised the said Castle of
Clare ••• burnt & spoyled all the Englishe
there dwellinge & in shorte space possessed all
that Country beyonde the River of Shenan and
nere adioyninge, Whenas shortely breakinge
forthe leike a suddeine tempeste he overran all


Mounster & Connagh, breakinge downe all the houldes and
fortresses of the Englishe defacinge & vtterlie subvertinge
all Corporate townes that were not stronglie walled
For those he hadd noe meanes nor engines to ouerthrow
neither in deed would he staye att all about them
but spedely ran farward Countinge his suddennes
his most advantage that he might overtake the
Englishe before they Could fortefie or gather
them selues togither Soe in shorte space he wiped
Cleane out manie great townes, as first Insheguin
then Killalowe before called Clariforte after=
wardes Thurles Mourne Buttevant . //
and manie others whose names I Cannot remember
and of some of which theare is nowe noe memory
nor sign Remayninge, vppon reporte wherof there
flocked vnto him all the scume of the Irishe
out of all places that erre longe he hadd a mightie
Army and thence marched forthe into Leinster
wheare he wroughte great outrages wastinge all
the Cuntrey where he went, For it was his
pollicie to leave noe houldes behinde him but to
make all playne and waste In the which he soone
after created him self kinge and was called kinge
of all Ireland which before him I doe not reade
that anie ded soe generallie but onlie Edwarde le Bruce.
Eudox: what was theare ever anie genrall kinge
of all Ireland: I never heard it before but that
it was allwaies whilst it was under the Irishe
devided into Fower & sometymes into Fyve kingdomes
or dominions but this Edward le Bruce what
was he that he Could make him self kinge of all
Ireland ./.
Iren I would tell yowe in Case yowe woulde not
Challendge me anone for forgettinge the matter which
I hadd in hande that is the inconvenience & vnfitnes
which I suppose to be in the Lawes of the Lande ./.

Eudox noe surelie I have noe Cause For neither is this
impertinent thereunto for sithens yow ded sett your course
(as I remembre) in your firste parte to treate of the
evills which hinderethe the peace and good orderinge
of that Land amongest which that of the inconvenience
•• in the Lawes was the firste which ye hadd in hande
this discourse of the over ••••••••• Rvnninge and
wastinge of the Realme •• is verie materiall
thereunto for that it was the begyninge of all the
other evills which sithens have afflicted that land
and opened a Waie vnto the Irishe to Recover
their possession and to beate owte the Englishe which
hadd formerlie wonne the the same, And besides
it will geive a greate lighte bothe vnto your
second & thirde parte which is the Redressinge ••
of those evills & plantinge of some good Fourme of
Pollicie therin by Renueinge the Remembrance
of those occasions & Accidentes by which those ruynes
happened and layeinge before vs the ensamples
of those times to be Compared with oures to be
rewarded by those which shall have to doe in the
leike, Therfore I praye yowe tell them vnto vs
and as for the point, where yowe lefte I will
not forgett afterwardes to Call yowe back againe
thereunto :
Iren: This Edward le Bruce was the brother
of Robert le Bruce whoe was kinge of Scotland
at soche tyme as kinge Edward the second
raigned here in England & bare a moste
malicious & spightfull mynde againste
kinge Edward doeinge him all the scathe that
he Could and annoyinge his territories of England
whilste he was troubled with civill warres of
his Barrons att home / He also to worke him
the more mischeif sent over his said brother
Edward with a power of Scottes & Reddshanckes
into Ireland, where by the meanes of the
Lacies & of the Irishe, with whome they combyned
they gott


they gott footeinge gatheringe vnto him all the
scatterlinges and outlawes out of all the woodes ande
mounteynes in which they longe had lurked marched
forthe into the Englishe Pale which then was cheifly
in the Northe from the pointe of Donluce & beyond
vnto Dublyn havinge in the middeste of her knockfergus
Belfast Armagh & Cartingforde which are nowe the
moste • one boundes and abandoned places in the Engl[ish]
pale & in deed not compted of the Englishe pale
att all For it stretcheth nowe noe further then
Dundalke towardes the Northe, There the saide
Edward le Bruce spoyled and Burnt all the
olde Englishe pale puttinge to the sworde all the
Englishe Inhabitauntes and sacked & raced all
Citties & Corporate townes noe lesse then
Murro en ranaghe of whome I earste toulde
yowe, for he wasted Belfaste Grenecastle Kelles
Belcalbot Castletowne Newton and manie other
verie good townes and stronge houldes he roted
out the noble families of the Audleys the Talbottes
the Tutchites ye Chamberlaines the Mandevills and
the Salvages thoughe the Lord Salvage there
remayne yett an heier that is nowe a Verie
pore gentleman dwellinge in the Ardes and
Commynge Lastly to Dondalke he theare made him
self kinge and Raigned by the space of one
whole yere by the name of Edward kinge of
Ireland vntill that k Edward of England
havinge sett some quiete in his affaiers at home sent
over the Lord Iohn Breningham to be generall
of the warres againste him whoe encountringe
him nere to Dundalk overthrewe his Armye and
slewe him self and presently followed the victory
soe hottlye vppon his Scottes that he suffred
them not to breathe or gather them selues
togither againe vntill they Came to the seacoaste

notwithstandinge all the waye as they fledd they
for verie Rancor & dispight in their returne
vtterly consumed & wasted whatsoeuer they hadd
before lefte vnspoiled soe that of all townes
and Castles fortes Bridges and Inhabitancions
he lefte not anie steke standinge nor anie people
Remayninge for those fewe which survived fled
from his furye further into the Englishe pale
that nowe is, Thus was all that goodlie country
vtterlie wasted and lefte desolate as yett
it remayneth to this daie which before hadd
bene the Cheiff ornament and bewtye of
Irelande for that parte of the Northe sometymes
was as populus and plentifull as anie
parte in England and yeilded vnto the kinges
of Englande (as yett appereth by good recordes),
thirtie thowsandes markes of oulde money
by the yere besides manie thowsandes of
able men to serve them in the warres, And
sure it is yett a most bewtifull Cuntrye as
anie is vnder heaven, seamed thorought with
manie goodlie Ryvers replenished with all
sortes of fishe most abundantly, sprinckled
with verie manie sweete Ilandes and goodly
Lakes leike litle Inland seas that will cary
evene shipps vppon their waters adorned with
goodlie woodes fitt for buildinges of howses and
shipps soe Comodiouslye, as that if some
princes in the worlde hadd them, they wolde
soone hope to be Lordes of all the seas and
eare Longe of all the worlde, Alsoe full of
verie good Portes and havens openinge vpon
England & Scotland as inviteinge vs to Come
vnto them to soe what excellent Commodities the
Contrye can afforde, besides the soyle it self
most fertile, fitt to yeilde all kinde of frute,
that shalbe


that shalbe Committed therinto, and lastlie the heaven
moste milde and temperate thoughe somewhat mor[e]
moyste then the partes towardes the weste. ./.
Eudox. Trulie Irenius what with your praises of
the Country, and what with your discourse of the
lamentable desolacion therof made by those ragtayl[e]
Irishe Scottes yow have filled me with a great
Compassion of their Callamities that I doe
moche pittie that sweet Lande to be subiecte to
soe manie evills as euerie daie I see more &
more throwne vppon her, and doe half begin
to thincke that it is (as ye said at the begining[e)]
her fatall misfortune above all Countryes
that I knowe to be thus misserablie tossed
and turmoyled with these variable stormes
of affliccions. But since wee are thus fair
entred into the Consideracion of her mishaps
tell me have theare bene anie more soche
tempestes as ye terme them wherin shee
have thus wretchedlie been wrecked.
Iren. Manie manie more god wote have theare
bene in which her principall partes have ben
rent & torne asunder but none that I
Can Remember soe vniuersall as these, and
yett the rebellion of Thoms fz Garrett ded
well nighe stretche her self into all partes
of Ireland But that which was in the tyme
of the governement of the Lorde, was
surelie noe lesse generall then all these for
there was noe parte free from the Contagion,
but all conspired in one to Caste •• •••••
of their subieccion to the Crowne of England
Nevertheles through the most wiese ande
valiant handlinge of the Right noble Lord
it got not that heade which the former evills

founde: For in them the Realme was lefte like a shipp
in a storme amidst the raginge surges vnruled
& vnderected of anie: For they to whome shee
was Comitted either fainted in their Labor or
forsooke there Charge. But he like a most
wise Pilott kepte her Course Carefully and
hild her nose stronglie evene againste those
Roaringe Billoes that he brought her safely
out of all soe as longe after evene by the space
of xij or xiij whole years shee rode at peace
throughe his onlye paines and excellente
endewrance, howe ever envye liste to blatter ageinst
him / But of this wee shall have more occasion
to speake in an other place, nowe if yow
please lett vs returne againe into our firste
Course :/.
Eudox: Truelie I am verie gladd to heare your
iudgement of the governement of that honorable
man soe soundlie: For I have in deed hearde
it oftentymes maligned and his doenges repraved
of some whoe I perceyved ded Rather of malicius
mynde or private greevaunce seeke to detracte
from the honor of his deedes and Councells
then of anie iuste Cause, But he was
nevertheles in the iudgement of all wiese
& good men defended & maineteyned and nowe
that he is deade his immortall fame surviveth &
florisheth in the mouthes of all those people
that evene those which ded backbite him, are
choked with their owne venyme, and breake their
galls to heare his soe honorable reporte, But
let him reste in peace and turne wee to our more
troublous matters of discourse of which I am Right
sorie that ye make soe shorte an ende and
Covett to passe over to your Former purposes For
there be manie other partes of Ireland, which (••• as
as I


as I have heard) have bene noe lesse vexed, with the like
stormes, then these of which yowe have treated As the
Countrye of the Birnes and tooles nere Dublyn with
the insolent outrages and spoyles of Pheaghe ma Hug[h]
The Countries of Carlo wexford & Waterford of the
Cavenaghes the Countries of Leix kilkenny and
kildare of the Moores The Counties of Offalie
Meath and Longford of the Conhoures: The Counties
of Westmeathe Cavan and Louthe of the Orelies the
Kellies and manie others soe as the discoursinge of
them should besides the pleasuer which should redound
out of your historye be alsoe verie profitable for
matters of Pollicie /:
Iren: All which ye have named and manie moe besides
oftentymes have (I right well knowe) and yett
often doe kindle grease fiers of tumultuos trobles
in the Countreys borderinge vppon them All
which to reherse shoulde rather be to Crnicle then to
sertche into the reformacion of Abuses in that Relme
And yet verie needfull it wilbe to Consider them
and the evills which they have often stirred vpp
that some redresse therof and prevention for
the evills to Come maie therby the rather be
devized, But I suppose wee shall have a
fitter oportinitie for the same when wee shall
speake of the particculer abuses & enormities of
that governement, which wilbe next after those
generall defectes and inconveniences which I said
weare in the lawes Customes & religion
Eudox: Goe to then in godes name and followe the
Course which ye have proposed to yourself. For it
Fitteth best, I must Confesse with the purpose
of our discourse. declare your oppinion as ye
begvn, about the Lawes of that Realme what
incommoditie ye have Conceyved to be in them Cheifly
in the Common Lawe, which I wolde have thought
most free from all dislike: /

Iren: The Common lawe is (as I before said) of it
self most Rightfull & verie Convenient I suppose for
the kingdome for which it was first devized for this
I thincke (as it seemes reasonable) that out of the
manners of the people and abuses of the Country
for which they were invented they tooke their firste
begynninge: For ells they should be moste vniuste:
for noe Lawes of man accordinge to the streight
rule of Right are iuste but as in Regarde of the
evills which they prevent and the saftye of the
Comen weale which they provide for as for ensample
in the true ballauncinge of Iustice it is a
flatt•••••• wronge to pvnnishe the thought or purpose
of anie before it be enacted: For true Iustice
pvnnisheth nothinge but the evill Acte or wicked
worde yett by the lawes of All Kingdomes it is a
Capitall Cryme to devize •• •••••• or purpose the
deathe of the kinge, The reason is for that when
soche a purpose effected it should be to late to
devise of the pvnnishement therof and should
turne that Common weale to more hurte by
soche losse of their prince then soche pvnnishement
of the malefactors. and therfore the Lawe in that
Case pvnnisheth his thought, For better it is a
mischeif then an inconvenience Soe that Ius
thoughe it be not of his self iuste yet
by applicacion or Rather Necessitie is made iust.
And this only Respect maketh all Lawes iuste Nowe
then if those Lawes of Ireland be not likwise
applied and fitted for that Realme they are sure
verie inconvenient :
Eudox yow reason strongly but what vnfitnes
doe yowe fynde in them for that Realme
shewe vs some particculars : /


Iren. The Common lawe appointeth that all tryalls
as well of Crymes as titles & rightes shalbe made
by verditt of a Iury Chosen out of the honestest and
most substantiall Freholders. Nowe all the Free=
holders of that realme are Irishe which when the Cause
shall fall betwene an Inglishman & an Irishe or
betwene the Quene & anie Freeholder of that
Countrye, they make noe more scruple to passe
against the Inglshman or the Quene thoughe
it be to strayne their oathes then to drincke
milke vnstrayned: soe that before the Iurye
goe togither is it all to nothinge what their verdett
wilbe The triall •herof I have soe often sene
that I dare Confidently avouche the Abuse
thereof: yett is the Lawe of it selfe (as I said
good) and the firste institution therof beinge
geiven to all Inglishmen verie rightfull, but
nowe that the Irishe have stepped into the Rowme
of the Englishe whoe are nowe become soe heedfull
and provident to kepe them owte from hensforthe that
they make noe scruple of Conscience to passe against
them it is good reason that either that Course of
the Lawe for tryalles be Altered or other provision
for Iuries be made. /
Eudox: In soothe Irenius yowe have discovered a point
wourthe the Conscideracion : For hereby not only
the Englishe subiect findeth noe indeffrencie in
discidinge of his Cause be it never soe iuste but
alsoe the Quene aswell in all pleas of the Crowne
As Alsoe in all Inquiries for excheates landes attaint[s]
wardshipps Concealementes and all soche leike
is abused and excedinglie endamaged ./
Iren ye saie verie true for I dare vndertake that
this daie there are more attainted landes concealled
from her Maiestie then shee nowe hathe possessions in
All Ireland & that is noe small inconvenience:

For besides that shee looseth soe muche land as should
turne her to great profitt shee besides looseth
soe manie good subiectes which might be assurd
to her as those Landes would yeilde inhabitaunc
and livinge vnto ./
Eudox But does that people saye yowe
make noe more Conscience to periure them
selves in their verdicth and to damme their
soules . /
Iren: Not onlie soe in their verdictes but also
in all other their dealinges speciallie with the
Inglishe, they are most wilfully bent: For
though they will not seme manifestly to doe
it yet will one or other some subtill headed
felloe amongest them pick some quirk or devise
some evasion wherof the reste will take hold
lightly and suffer them selues easily to be
led by him to that them selues desierid For
in the moste apparant matter that maie be
the least question or doubt that can be moved
will make a stopp vnto them & put them
quite out of the waie besides that of them
selues they are for the most parte so cautelous
and wilye headed specially beinge men of
soe small experience and practise in
Lawe matters, that yowe would wunder
whence they boroughe soche subtiltyes and
slye shiftes /.
Eudox But me thinckes this inconvenience
might be muche helped in the Iudges and
Cheiff Magistrates which have the Chosinge &
nominatinge of those Iurours if they woulde
have Care to appoint eyther most Englyshmen
or soche Irishmen as were of the soundeste
disposicion: For noe doubt but some there be incorruptible:


Iren: Some there be as yowe saie but then would
the Irishe partie Crie out of parcialitie & Complaine
he hathe not Iustice, he is not vsed as a subiecte
he is not suffred to have the free benefytt of the lawe
And these outcryes the Magistrates theare doe
muche shvnne as they have Cause since they
are soe readelie heakened vnto here neither
can it in deed allthoughe the Irishe partie would
be content to be soe Compassed that soche Inglishe
freeholders which are but fewe and soche Faithfulle
Irishmen which are in deed as fewe shall alwaie
be chosen for tryalls for beinge soe fewe they
shoulde soone be made werie of their freehold
and therfore a good Care is to be hadd by all
good occasions to encrease their numbre and
to plante more by them But were it soe that
the Iuries could be picked out of soche choice
men as ye desier theare woulde nevertheles
be as badd Corrupcion in the tryall for the evidences
beinge brought in by Base Irishe people wilbe as
deceiptfull as the verdictes: For they Care muche
lesse then the others what they Answere and sure
their Lawes maie Compell them to saye anye
thinge For I my self have herde when one
of that base sort which they Call Churles beinge
Challendged and reproved for his false oathe
hathe Answerid Confidently that his Lorde
Comaunded him and that it was the leaste thinge
he colde doe for his Lorde to sweare for him
soe inconscionable are these Common people and
soe litle feelinge have they of god or their owne
soules good /.
Eudox It is a most miserable Case but what
helpe then Can theare be in this: For thoughe the
manner of the triall shoulde be Altered, yett the
proof of eurie • thinge muste needes be by the testimon[y]
of soc[he]

of soche persons as the parties shall produce which if they
shall corrupte howe can theare ever anie light
of the trueth appere what remedie is there
for this evill but to make hevie lawes and
pennalties against periurors.
Iren: I thinck sure that will doe small good.
for when a people are inclined to anie vice
or have noe towche of Conscience nor sence of
their evill doenge it is bootlesse to thincke to
restrayne by anie pennalties or feare of punishement
but either the occasion is to be taken awaie or a
more vnderstandinge of the Righte and shame
of the faulte is to be imprinted: For if that
Lygurgus shoulde have made it deathe for
the Lacedemonians to stealle they beinge a
people which naturallye delighted in stealthe or if
it should be made a Capitall Cryme for the
Flemynge to be taken in Drunckenesse theare
should have bene fewe Lacedemonians soone lefte
and fewer Fleminges soe impossible it is to remove
anie faulte soe generall in a people with terror of
Lawes or most sharpe •••••••• restraintes.
Eudox: what meanes maie theare then be to avoid
this inconvenience, For the Case sure semes
verie harde ./
Iren: wee are not yett come to that pointe to
devise remedies for evills but onlye have now
to recount them of the which this which I have
tolde yowe is one defecte of the Comon Lawe/
Eudox Tell vs then I praie yowe further
have yowe anie more of this sorte in the
Common Lawe,
Iren: by rehersall of this I Remembre me alsoe
of an other leike which I have often observed in
tryalls to have wrought greate hurt & hindrance
& that is the exception which the Comon lawe
alloweth to a fellon in his triall, for he maye
have as


have as yowe knowe xxxvjti exceptions peremtorye
againste the Iurours of which he shall showe noe
Cause & as manie as he will of soche as he can shew
cause, By which shifte there beinge as I have shew[ed]
yowe soche small store of honest Iury men he will
either put of his triall or drive it to soche men
as perhaps are not of soundest sorte By whose
meanes if he Can acquit him self of the Crym[e]
as he is leiklye then will he plague soche as
were brought first to be of his Iurye and
all soche as made anie partie againste him
and when he Comes forthe will make their
Cowes & Garrons to walke yf he does noe other
mischeif to their persons. /
Eudox This is a slye devise but I thincke migh[t]
soone be remedied but we must leave it a
while with the Reste in the meane tyme doe ye
goe forwarde with others /.
Iren: There is annother noe lesse inconvenient
then this which is for the triall of Accessaryes
to fellonye for by the Common lawe the
Accessaryes cannot be proceeded againste
till the Principall have receyved his
tryall, Nowe the Case often falleth in
Ireland that a stealthe beinge made
by a rebell or an owtlawe, the stolen goodes
are conveyed to some other husboundman or
gentleman which hathe well to take to and
yette liveth moste by the Receipte of soche
stealthes where they are found by the owner
and hanted whervppon the partie perhaps
is apprehended and Comitted to Gaole or
put vppon suerties till the Sessions att
which tyme the owner preferringe a bill of
Inditement proveth sufficiently the stelthe
to have bene Comitted vppon him by soch[e]
an owtlaw[e]

an owtlawe & to have ben found in the possession•
of the prisoner, againste whome, nevertheles noe
Course of Lawe can proceed nor triall can be had
for that the principall theif is not to be gotten
notwithstandinge that he leikwise standeth
perhaps indicted att once with the receyvor
beinge in rebells or in the woodes where perad=
venture, he is slayne before he can be gotten
& soe the receyver cleane acquitted & discharged
of the Crime, By which meanes the theves are
greatly encouraged to steale and there maintaynors
imboldned to receyve there stelthes knowinge howe
hardlie they can be brought to anie tryall /.
Eudox: Truelie this is a greate inconvenience &
a great Cause as yow saye of the maintenance
of theves knowinge there receyvers allwaies redye
For would there be noe receyvers there wolde
be noe theves, But this me seemes mighte
rather be provided for by some Acte of parliament
that the receyvor beinge convicted by good profes
mighte receyve his triall without the principall
Iren: yowe saie verie true Eudoxus, but this
is all most imposable to be Compassed, And
herin also yowe discover an other imperfeccion
in the Course of the Comon lawe & Firste
Ordinance of the Realme, For ye knowe
that the said parliament muste consiste of
peres gentlemen & Freeholders & Burgesses of
of that Realme it self nowe these beinge
perhaps themselues or the moste parte of
them (as •••• maye seeme by their stiff with=
standinge of this Acte) Culpable of this
Cryme or favourers of their Frendes which are
soche by whome their kitchins are sometimes
amended will not suffer anie soche statute to


Passe: yett hathe it oftentymes bene attempted and
in the time of Sir Iohn Perrott verie ernestlye I
Remembre Laboured but by noe meanes Could be
effected. And not only this but manie others leike
which are as needfull for the reformacion of that
Realme. /
Eudox: This alsoe is surelie a great defect but
wee maye not talke yowe saye of the redressinge
of this vntill our second parte Come, which is purposely
appointed therunto, therfore proceed to the recounting
of more soche evills if at leaste yow have anie more
Iren Theare is also a great inconvenience which
hathe wroughte greate damage bothe to her maiestie
and to that Comon wealthe thoroughe Close &
colourable conveyaunces of the landes & goodes of
Traytors Fellons and Fugetyves as when one
Convaye awaie all his Landes & Lordshipps
to Feffees in truste wherbie he reserveth to
him self but a state for terme of lief which
beinge determyned either by the sworde or by
the halter their land streight Cometh to their
heire and the Quene is defrauded of the
intente of the Lawe which laid that grevous
pvnnishment vppon Traytors to forfeite all
their Lande to the Prince, to thende that
men might be the Rather terrefied from
Comitted treasons For manie which wolde
litle esteeme of there owne lyves yett for
Remorse of there wyves and Children
should be witheld from that heynous Cryme
This appered plainly in the late Earle
of Desmond for before his breakinge Forthe
into open rebellion he hadd Conveyed secretly
all his

all his Landes to Feffees of truste in hope to have
Cutte of her Maiesties from the excheat of his landes.
Eudox yea but that was well enoughe avoyded
For the Acte of Parliament which gave all his
Landes to the Quene did (as I have hearde)
cutte of and frustrate all soche conveyances
as hadd anie tyme by the space of xij
yeris before his rebellion bene made within
the Compasse wherof that Fraudulente
feoffment and manie other the leike of his
Accomplices and felloe traitours were conteynd
Iren: verie trewe but howe hardly that
Acte of Parliament was wrunge out of
them I cann witnes and were it to be passed
againe, I dare vndertake would never
be comepassed, But were it soe that soche
Actes mighte easilye be brought to passe
againste traytours and felons yett were
it not an endlesse trouble, that noe traitor
nor felon should be attainted, but a parlament
muste be Called for bringinge his Landes to
the Quene which the Comon lawe geiveth her.
Eudox: Then this is noe falte of the Comon
Lawe but of the persons which worke this
fraude to her Maiestie /.
Iren: Yes marrie, for the Comon Lawe hathe
lefte them this ••••••••• benefitt wherof they
make advantage & wrest it to their bad purpose
Soe as they are therbie the bolder to enter into
evill accion knowinge that if the wourst befall
them they shall loose nothinge but them selues,
wherof they seeme surelie verie Carelesse
leike as all barbourous people •• are as in
his Comentaries very fearelesse of deathe;


Eudox But what meane yowe of fugitives herein or howe
doe this concerne them.
Iren: Yes verie greatelie; For ye shall vnderstand
that there be manie ill disposed & vndewtifull persons
of that Realme, leike as in the pointe there alsoe
in this Realme of England to manie which beinge
men of good inherritance are for dislike of the
religion or daunger of the lawe which they are rune
or discontent of this present gouernement flee beyond
the seas where they live vnder princes that are
her Maiesties professed enemyes and converse and
are confederate with other traiters and fugitives
which are there abidinge, The which nevertheles have
the benefitt and profittes of their landes here by pretence
of soche coullorrable conveyances therof Formerly
made by them to their prevy frendes here in truste
whoe secretlie doe sende over vnto them the saide
revenues, wherewith they are there mainteyned &
enhabled againste her Maiestie ./.
Eudox: I doe not thincke that theare be anie soche
fugitives which are releived by the proffit of
their Landes in England For theire is a streighter
ordre taken, and if theare be anie suche in Ireland
it were good that it were leikwise lookte vnto:
For this evill maie easilie be remedied but proceed.


Eudox, Nowe truelie Irenius yea have (me seemes) very
well handled this pointe towchinge inconveniences in
the Common lawe theare by yowe obserued and
it semeth that ye have hadd a myndfull regard
vnto the thinges that Maye concerue the good of
that realme, And if ye Canne aswell goe thorough
with the statute Lawes of that land I will thinck
yowe have not lost all your tyme there Therfore
I praye yowe nowe take them to yowe in hande
and tell vs what ye thincke to be amisse in them:
Iren: The statutes of that Realme are not manie &
therfore wee shall the soonner runne thoroughe
them And yet of those fewe there are sundrye
impertinent & vnnessassarye, the which perhaps, thoughe
att the time of the makinge of them were verie
needfull yett nowe thorowe Change of tyme are
cleane antiquated and alltogither ydle, As that
which forbideth anie to weare their berdes all on
the vpper lipp and none vnder the Chin, And that
which putteth awaie saffron shirtes & smockes
And that

Eudox These truelie which yea have repeted
seeme verie frivolus and fruiteles for by the
breatche of them litle dammage or inconvenience
can come to the Comon wealthe, neither indeed
if anie transgresse them shall he seme
••• wourthey of pvnnishement scarse of blame
savinge but that they abide by the names of lawes
But lawes ought to be soche as that the
kepeinge of them shoulde be greatelie for the
behoof of the Comon weale & the violateinge of them
should be verie hainous & sharpelie punishable
But tell


But tell vs of some more weightie dislikes in the states
then these and that maie more behoofullie ••• import
the reformacion of them,
Iren There is one or two statutes which make the wrongfu[l]
distrayninge of anie mans goodes againste the forme
of Common Lawe to be felonie The which statutes seme
surelie to have ben att firste meant for the great
good of that Realme & for restrayninge of a foule
abuse which then Raigned Comonly amongest that
people, and yett is not alltogither laid assyde
that when anie one was indebted to an other, he
would first demaund demaund his debt and if
he were not paid he would streight goe &
take a Destresse of his goodes & Cattells where
he Could fynde them to the valewe the which
he would kepe till he were satisfied and the
simple Cherle (as they call him) dothe commonly
vse to doe yett throughe ignouraunce of his misdoenge
or evill vse that hathe longe settled amongest them
But this thoughe it be sure moste vnlawfull, yet
surelie mee seemes to hard to make it deathe, since
theare is noe purpose in the partie to steale the
others goodes or to conceale the distresse, but dothe
it openlie for the most part before witnesses
and againe the same statutes are soe slackly
pende (besides that later of them is vnsensibly
contrived that is scarse Carieth anie Reason
in yt) that they are often & verie easilye
wrested to the fraude of the subiect, as if one
goenge to distraine vppon his owne land
or tenante where lawfullie he maie, yett if in
doeinge therof he transgresse the leaste pointe
of the Comon lawe he streighte comitteth felonye.
Or yf one by an other occasion take anie thinge
from another, as boies vse sometymes to Cappe one
an other the same is streight fellonie, This is a
verie harde Lawe. / .

Eudox. Nevertheles the evill vse of distreyninge an
other mans goodes yowe will not denye but it is
to be abolished and taken awaie /.
Iren: It is soe but not by takinge awaie the subiecte
withall For that is to violent a medicine, specially
this vse beinge permitted and made lawfull to some
deathe, As to moste of the Corporate townes there
it is graunted by their Charter, that they maie euery
man by him self, withowt an officer (for that were
more tollerable) for anie debt distreyne the goodes
of anie Irishe beinge found within their libertye
or but passinge throughe their townes, And the
firste permission of this was for that in those times
when that grant was made, the Irishe were not
amenable to law, soe as it was not safetie for the
townes man to goe to him for to demand his debte
nor possible to drawe him into lawe soe that he
hadd leave to be his owne Baliffe to arreste
his said debters goodes within his owne Franchise
The which the Irishe seeinge, thoughte it was
lawfull for them to distrayne the townesmans
goodes in the Cuntrye where they founde yt
And soe by ensample of that graunt to
Townes Men they thought it Lawfull & made
it a vse to distraine one an others goodes for small debtes
And to saie truthe me thinckes it hard for euery
triflinge debte of ij or iijs to be driven to lawe
which is soe farre from them sometymes to be sought
for which me thinckes it an heavie ordinance to
geive Deathe especiallie to a Rude man that is
ignorant of Lawe & thinckes a Comon vse or
graunte to other men a lawe for him self, yea but
the Iudg• when it Cometh before him to tryall may
easilye discide this doubte & laie open the intent
of the Lawe by his better discretion.
Iren: yea but it is daungerous to leave the sence of
a lawe vnto the reason or will of the Iudge, whoe
are men


are men and maie be miscaried by affeccions & manie
other meanes, but lawes oughte to be like to stonye tables
plaine steadfaste & imoveable theare is alsoe soche
an other statute or two which make Coigny or liuerye
to be treason noe lesse inconvenient then the
former, beinge as it is penned howe ever the
the firste purpose therof were expedient
for therbie nowe noe man can goe vnto any
other mans house for lodginge nor to his owne
tenantes howse to take victuall by the waye not
withstandinge that theare is noe other meanes to
have lodginge nor horsemeat nor mans meate
theare beinge noe Ins nor none otherwise to be
boughte for money but that he is endaungered
to the statute of treason whensoever he shall
happen to fall out with his tenante or that
his said Oste liste to complaine of greivance
as oftentimes I have sene them verie maliciously
doe thorowe the leaste provocacion.
Eudox: I doe not well knowe but by ghesse
what they doe meane by those termes of Coignye
and liuery therfore I praye yowe explaine them
Iren: I knowe not whither the wordes be Englishe
or Irishe but I suppose them rather to be
Auncient Englishe for the Irishe men can make
noe dirivacion nor analoge of them, what liuery
is, we by Comon vse in England knowe well
enoughe namelie that it is allowance of horsemeat
as they Comonly vse the worde in stablinge as to
kepe horses att livery, the which wourd as I
ghesse is dirived of liveringe or deliueringe for their
nightly foode, Soe in greate howses the liuerye is said
to be serued uppe for all night that is their eveninges
allowance of drincke & liuerye is alsoe called the
vpper which a servingeman weareth soe Called
as I suppose for that it was deliuered and taken
from him at pleasuer. Soe it is apparant that
by the

by the wourde liuerye is there meant horsemeate like as
by Coigny is vnderstood mans meate But whence
the worde is ••• dirived is verie hard to tell some
saye coyne for that they vsed Comonly in their
Coignes not only to take meate but Coyne also
and that takinge of money was speciallie meante
to be prohibited by that statute: But I thincke that
this word Coignye is dirived of the Irishe, the
which is a Common vse amongest the Irishe landholders
to have a Commen spendinge vppon their tenantes: For
all their tenantes beinge comenly but tenantes at will
the vse to take of them victalls they liste, For of
victualls they were wont to make smale recokninge
neither in this was the tenante wronged for it was an
ordinarye & knowne Custome & his Lorde comenly vsed
soe to covenante with him which if at anie tyme the tenante
disleiked he might frely departe att his pleasuer
but nowe by this statute the said Irishe lord is wronged
for that he is Cut of from his Customarie services
of the which this was one besides manie other of
the like as Cuddie Cossheire Bonnaght Sragh
forehin and soche others, the which I thincke at firste
were Customes brought brought in by the Inglishe
vppon the Irishe the which were never wont and
yet are loathe to yeild anie Certeine rent but only
soche spendinges For their Common saieinge is
spende me and defende me.
Eudox: Surelie I take it as yowe saie that
therin the Irishe lord hathe wronge since it
was an Auncient Custome and nothinge contraye
to lawe for to the willinge their is noe wronge
done, And, this righte well I wote that evene
here in England there are in manie places as large
Customes as that of Coigny & lyuery but I
suppose by your speeche that it was the
firste meaninge of that statute to forbid the
violent takinge of victualls vppon other mens
tenantes againste their wills which surely is a great


outrage, and yett not soe greate me semes as that it
should be made treason. For Conscideringe that the
nature of treason is concerninge the Royall state
or person of the prince or practizinge with his enemyes
to the Derogacion and daunger of his Crowne
and dignitie it is hardlie wrested to make
this treason But as yowe earste said better a
mischeif then an Inconvenience.
Iren: Another statute I remembre, which haveinge
bene an Auncient Irishe Custome is nowe
vppon advisement made an Englishe Lawe and
that is called the Custome of Kincongishe, which is
that euerie Heade of euerie septe and euerie cheif
of euerie Kindred of familie should be answerable
& bounde to bringe forthe euerie one of that kindred
or septe vnder him at all times to be iustified when
he should be requierid or Charged with anie
treason felonie or other heynous Cryme.
Eudox whie surelie this semes a verie necessary
lawe For conscideringe that manie of them be
soche lossels & scatterlinges as that they cannote
easilie by anie shreif Constable Bayliffe
or other ordinarie officer be gotten when they
are challendged for anie soche facte, this • is
a verie good meanes to gett them to be brought
in by him that is the heade of the septe or cheif
of that howse, wherfore I wonder what iuste
exception ye can make againste the same.
Iren, True Eudoxus in the pretence of the good
of this statute ye haue nothinge erred for yt
semeth verie expedient & necessarye But the
hurte which cometh therbye is greater then the
good For whileste euerie Cheiffe of septe standeth
soe bounde to the lawe for euerie mane of his
bloud or septe that is under him, inclusive euerye
one of his sept is put vnder him & he made
great by the Commandinge of them all For if he
maie not Comaunde them then that lawe dothe
••• wronge

••• wronge that bindeth that bindeth him to bringe
them forthe to be iustified And if he maie comand
them, then he maie Comaund them aswell to ill
as to good, Herebie the Lordes and Captaines of
Countries the principalls and heade of Septes
are made stronger whome it should be a most
speciall Care in Pollicie to weaken and to sett vpp
and strengthen diuerse of his underlinges againste
which whensoever he shall offer to swarue from
dutye maie be hable to •••••• bearde him For
it is verie daungerous to leave the Comaund
of soe manie as some septes are being fyve or
sixe thowsand personnes to the will of one manne
whoe maie leade them to what he will as he
him self shalbe inclyned. /.
Eudox: In verie deed Irenius it is verie daungerous
especiallie seeinge the disposicion of those people
not allwaies inclynable to the beste, And therfore
I hould it noe wisdome to leave vnto them
to muche Commaund over their kindred but
rather to withdrawe their followers from them
as muche as maie be and to gather them
vnder the Comaund of Lawe by some better
meane then this custome of kinconghishe, The
which wourde I woulde be glad to knowe what
it namelie signifiethe for the meaninge therof
I seeme to vnderstand reasonablye well.
Iren It is a wourd mingled of Englishe ande
Irishe togither soe as I am partly ledd to
thincke, that the Custome •• ••••• therof was
firste Englishe & afterward made Irishe, For
soche another lawe they hadd here in England
as I remembre made by kinge Alured, that
euerie gentleman shoulde Contynually bringe
furthe his kindred & followers to the lawe, Soe
kin is Englishe and Conghish signifieth affinitye
in Irishe. /.


Sith then that we haue thus reasonablye handled the
inconveniences in the lawes lett vs nowe passe vnto
your second parte which was as I remembre of the
abuses of Customes in which me seemes ye have
a faier Champion laid open vnto yowe in which
ye maie at large stretche out your discourse into
manie sweet remembrances of antiquities from
whence it semeth that the Customes from that
nation proceeded ./.
Iren Indeed Eudoxus yowe saie verie trewe for all the
Customes of the Irishe which I haue often noted
and compared with that I have Redd woulde
minister occasion of a moste ample discourse of
the firste originall of them and the antiquity
of that people which in truthe I doe thincke to
be more Auncient, then moste that I do knowe
in theys ende of the worlde, soe as if it were in
the handlinge of some mane of sound Iudgment
and plentifull readinge it would be most
pleasant and profitable, But it maie be
wee maie att some other tyme of meetinge take
occasion to treate therof more at large, here
onlie yt shall suffise to touche soche Customes
of the Irishe as seme offensive & repugnant
to the good gouernement of that realme.
Eudox: Followe then your owne Course for ye
shall the better Content my self to forbeare
my desier nowe in hope that ye will as yow
saie some other time more abundantly satisfye
Iren. Before we enter into the treatie of their
Customes, it is firste needfull to Conscider from
whence they firste spronge For from the sundry
manners of the nacions from whence that people
which nowe is called Irishe were deryved some
of the Customes which nowe remayne amongest
them haue bene firste fetche and sithens there

contynued amongeste them For not of one nacion
was it peopled as it is but of sondrye people
of deffrent Condicions and Manners But the
Cheiffest which haue firste possessed & inhabited
it, I suppose to be Scythians, which att soche
tyme as the Northen nacions overflowed all
Christendome came downe to the seacoste where
inquieringe for other Countreis abroade and
gettinge intelligence of this Countrye of Ireland
findinge shippinge convenient passed over hither
and arived in the North parte therof which is
nowe Called Vlster which firste Inhabitinge
and afterward stretchinge them selues fourthe
into the Land as their numbers increased
named it all•• of them selues Scuttenland which
nowe breifflye is called Scutland or Scotland
Eudox: I won•der Irenius whither ye rune soe
farre astraye For whilste we talke of
Ireland my thinckes ye ripp upp the
Originall of Scotland but what is that
to this?
Iren: Surelie verie muche for Scotland and
Ireland are all one and the same.
Eudox: That seemeth more Leauinge, For
wee all knowe right well that they
are distinguished with with a great sea
runninge betwene them or ells there are
two Scotlandes:
Iren: Neverthemore are theare two Scotlandes
but two kinde of Scottes theare were in
deed as ye maie gather out of Buckhanan
the one Irin or Irishe scottes the other Albin
Scottes, for those Scuttes or Scythyans
arryved as I sayd in the Northe partes of
Ireland some of them afterwardes passed over
into the next Coste of Albyne nowe Called


Scotland which after muche trouble they possessed
and of them selues named it also Scutland
but in processe of tyme as it is Comonly seene
the denominacion parte prevayled in the whole
for the Irishe Scottes puttinge awaie that
name of Scottes were called only Irishe and
the Albyne Scottes leavinge the name of Albyne
were called onlye Scottes. Therfore it cometh
that of some writers Ireland is called Scotia
and that which nowe is called Scotland
is named Scotia minor /.
Eudox: I doe nowe well vnderstand your
distinguishinge of the two sortes of Scottes
and two Scotlandes howe that this which is
nowe called Ireland was Aunciently
called Irin & afterwardes of some written
Scutland and that which is nowe called
Scotland was formerly called Albyne
before the Comynge of the Scuttes thither but
what other nations inhabited the other parte
of Ireland .
Iren: After this people thus planted in the
northe or afore (for the certeintye oftymes in
thinges •••• ••• soe farre from all knowledge
cannot be iustlie avouched) an other nation
Cominge oute of Spaine arryved in the weste
partes of Ireland & findinge it waste • or
weaklie inhabited possessed it, whoe whither
they were native Spanierdes or Gaules or
Affricanes or Gothis or some other of those
northerne nations which ded overspreed all Christendome
it is vnpossible to affirme onely some naked
coniectures maie be gathered But that out
of Spayne certenlye they Came, that doe all the
Irishe Cronicles agree:

Eudox: yea doe verie bouldly Irenius adventure
vppon the history of soe Auncient tymes
and leane to Confidently vnto those Irishe
Cronicles which are most fabulous and
forged in that oute of them ye dare take
in hand to laie open the originall of
a nation soe antique, as that noe
monyment remayneth of her begyninge
and Inhabitinge, here speciallie havinge
bene allwaies withowt lettres but only bare
tradicion of tymes & remembrances of
bardes which vse to forge and falsefie every
thinge as they liste to please or
displease anie man . / .
Iren: Truelie I must confesse I doe soe
but yett not soe absolutely as yea doe
suppose, doe I herin rely vppon Bardes
or Irishe Cronicles thoughe the Irishe
them selues thoroughe their ignorance
in matters of lerninge and deep iudgment
doe most constantly •• beleive & avouch
But vnto them besides I add myne
owne Readinge and out of them bothe
togither with comparison of tymes, liknes
of manners & Customes, affinitye of wordes
and names, properties of nature and vses,
resemblances of rightes & ceremonies, monimentes
of Churches and tombes, and manie other
like Circomestances I doe gather a likelyhood
of truthe not certemlye affirminge anie
thinge but by conferringe of tymes nations
Languages monimentes & soche like I doe
hunt out a probalitie of thinges which I
leave vnto your Iudgment to beleive or
refuse, Nevertheles there be some very


Auncient Authors which make mention only of these
thinges and some moderne which by Comparinge
of them with the Experience of the present tyme
and their owne reason doe open a greate
windoe of light vnto the rest that is yett
vnseene as namely of the elder Cæsar strabo
Tacitus Ptolomæ Plinie Solinus, Pompeius mela & Berosus
of the later Vincentius Æneas, Syluius luddus &
Buckhanan of all which I doe geive moste
creditt vnto Buckhanan for that he hjm
self beinge an Irishe Scott or Pict by nation
and beinge • verie excellently lerned & industrious
to seeke out the truthe of these thinges concerninge
the Originall of his owne people hathe bothe
sett downe the testimonies of the Aunciente
truthe and his owne oppinion withall verie
reasonabley thoughe in somethinges he doe some
what folter, Besides the Bardes & Irishe cronicles
them selues thoughe thorowe desiers perhaps of
pleasinge too muche or ignorance of Artes &
purer learninge they haue clouded the truthe
of those tymes yet there remayneth amongest
them some Relickes of the true antiquitie
thoughe disguised which a well eyed man may
happely discouer and fynde owte /.
Eudox: howe can theare be anie truthe in
them at all since the Auncient nations which
firste inhabited Ireland were alltogither
destitute of lettres muche more of learninge
by which they might leave the veritie of thinges
written, And those bardes Comynge alsoe
soe manie hundred yeris after, could not
knowe what was done in former Ages owr
deliuer certentye of anie thinge but what they
fayned out of their owne heades.
Iren: Those Bardes in deed as Cæsar writeth
deliuer noe certeine truthe of anie thinge
neither is there anie holde to be taken of
any antiquitye

any antiquity which is receyved by tradicion
since all men be lyers and maye lye when
they will, But yett for the Auncientnesse
of the written Cronickles of the Irishe geive
me leave to saye some thinge not to iustifye
them but to shewe that some of them might
saye truthe For where ye saye that the
Irishe haue allwaies beene withowte lettres
ye are therin muche deceyved For it is
certeine that Ireland hathe hadd the vse
of lettres very Aunciently and longe before
England ../
Eudox Is it possible howe comes it then
that they are soe barbourous still, and soe
vnlerned beinge soe ould schollers for
lerninge as the Poet saithe Emollit mores
nec sinit esse feros
whence then I praye
yowe could they haue those lettres /.
Iren: It is hard to saye, For whither they
at their firste Comeinge into the Lande
or afterwardes by tradinge with other nacions
which hadd lettres learned of them or devised them
amongeste them selues, it is verie doubtfull
but that they hadd letters Aunciently it
is nothinge doubtfull For the Saxons
of England are said to have fetched their
Lettres and lerninge and learned men from
the Irishe. And that also appereth by the
leiknes of the Character For the Saxon
Character is the same with the Irishe
nowe the Scythians never that I can Reade
of ould hadd lettres amongest them, Therfore
it semethe that they hadd them from that
nation which came out of Spaine for in Spaine
theare was (as Strabo writeth) lettres aunciently


Vsed whither broughte into them by the Phenitians or
the persians which as it appereth by him) hadd some
footinge theare or from Mersiles, which is said to have
ben inhabited firste of the Grekes, and from them to have
hadd the Greeke Charactor, of which marsillians it is
written that the Grekes lerned them firste & vsed only
for the furtherance of their trades and privat buysiness
For the Gawles as it is stronglie to be proved by
manie Auncient & verie Authenticall writers ded first
Inhabit all the Seacoastes of Spayne evene vnto Cales
and the mouthe of the streightes and peopled alsoe a
greate parte of Italy which appereth by sondrye
Citties and havens in Spayne, Called of them Portu=
Gallecia Galdunium and by sondry nations therin
dwellinge which yet reserveth their owne names of
the Gawles as the
Presemancj Tamarici Nerij and diuerse others alle
which Pomponius Mela beinge him selfe a Spanyard
yet saithe to haue discended from the Coltie of
Fraunc: wherbie it is to gathered that that nation
which came out of Spayne into Ireland were aunciently
Gawles and that they brought with them those lettres
which they lerned in Spayne firste into Ireland the
which some also saye doe muche resemble the old
Phenitian Charactar beinge leikwise distinguished
with prick & accentes as their auncien, But
the further Inquirie hereof needeth a place of
longer discourse then this our shorte conferrence.
Eudox Surelie ye haue shewed a great probability
of that which I hadd thought ympossible to haue
bene proved But that which yowe nowe saye
that Ireland should haue bene peopled with
the Gawles semeth muche more strange For all
their Cronicles doe saie that the weste and
southe was possessed and Inhabited of Spaniards
And Cornelius Tacitus dothe alsoe •••••••
stronglie affirme the same, All which ye muste
either overthrowe & falsifie or renounce your oppinion

Iren: Neither so nor soe: For these Irishe Cronicles
as I said vnto yowe beinge made by unlearned men
and writinge thinges accordinge to the apparaunce
of the truthe which they conceyve doe erre in the
Circomstances not in the matter, For all that
Came out of Spayne, they beinge noe dilligent
sertchers into the deffrences of nations supposed
to be Spaniardes and soe called them but the
groundeworke therof is nevertheles (as I earste
said) true and Certeine, howe ever they thoroughe
ignorance Disguise the same or thorough there
owne vanitie whilste they would not seme
to be ignorant doe thervppon builde & enlarge
manie forged histories of their owne antiquity
which they delyver to fooles and make them beleive
them for true As for Ensample, that firste
of one Gathelus the sonne of Ceroppes or Argus
whoe havinge married the kinge of Aegistes
daughter /
and there inhabited Then that
of Nemed and his nyen sonnes whoe cominge out of
Scythia peopled Ireland and inhabited it with
his sonnes two hundred and fiftene yeres till he
was overcome of the Geauntes dwellinge then
in Ireland and att laste quit banished and
rooted out, After whome two hundred yeris the
sonnes of one Dela beinge Scithians arryved
here againe and possessed the whole lande
of which the youngeste called Slanius in the ende
made him self monarch. lastlie the iiiior sonnes
of milesius kinge of Spayne which conquered that
Land from the Scithians and Inhabitinge it
with Spanyerds called it of the name of the
youngest Heberus Hibernia, all which are in truth
mere fables & verie milesian lies as the
latin proverbe is For neither was their ever
soche a kinge


soche a kinge of spaine Called milesius nor anie
soche Colonie seate with his sonnes as they faine
that can ever be proved But yet vnder these
tales ye maie in a manner see the truthe lurke.
For Scithians here inhabitinge, they name and
doe speake Spanierdes wherbie appereth that
bothe those nations here inhabited But whither
verie Spanierds (as the Irishe greatly affecte) is
noe waies to be proved.
Eudox whence cometh it then, that the Irishe
doe soe •••••• greatlie covet to fetche them selues
from the spanierdes since the oulde Gawles
are a more Auncient and moche more honorable
Iren Evene of a verie desier of newfanglenesse
& vanitie for beinge as they are nowe accompted
the moste barbarous nation in Christendome, they
to avoyde that reproche would deryve them selues
from the Spanierdes whome they nowe see to be
a verie honorable people and next borderinge
vnto them. But all that is most vayne, for
from the Spanierdes that nowe is or that people
that nowe inhabittes Spayne, they noe waie prove
them selues to discend, neither should it indeed
be greatly glorious vnto them; For the
Spanierd that nowe is, is Come from as rude
and salvage nations as they there beinge as
it maie be gathered by Course of sages & viewe of their
owne historie (thoughe they therin labor muche
to enoble them selues) scarse anie dropp of the
oulde Spannishe bloode lefte in them For all Spayne
was firste conquered by the Romaynes & filled with
Colonies from them which were still encreased and
the native Spanierd still cut of, Afterward the
Carthaginans in all the longer Punycke warres havinge
spoyled all Spaine & in the ende subdued it wholy to

themselues ded (as it is likely) roote owte all that were
affected to the Romanes, And lastlie the romanes
havinge againe recoured that Countrie & bett oute
Hanniball ded doubtlesse Cut of all that had favoured
the Carthagineans: soe that betwixte them bothe to and
fro, there was scarce a native spanierd lefte but
all inhabited of Romanes, All which tempestes of trobles
beinge overblowne there longe after arose a newe storm
more dreadfull then all the former which overan all
Spayne and made an infinite confusion of all thinges
That was the cominge downe of the Gothes ••••
Hunes and Vandalls, and lastlie all the nations of
Scithia which like a mountaine fledd ded overflowe
all Spaine and quite drowne and washe awaye
what ever relickes theare were lefte of the land
brede people yea and of all the Romaines too, The
which Northerne nacions findinge the Compleccion
of that soyle and vehement heat theare farre
diffringe from their natures, tooke noe felicitye
in the Countrye but from thence passed over &
ded spreed them selues into all Countries • in Christendome
of all which theare is none but hathe some mixture
and sprincklinge, yf not throughe peoplinge of
them, And yet after all these the Mores and
Barbarians breakinge over out of Affrica ded
finallie possesse all spayne or the moste parte therof
and treade downe vnder the faule heathnishe foote
whate ever litle they founde theare yet standinge
the which thoughe afterwardes they were beaten out
by Ferdinando of Arygon and Elizabeth his wief yet
they were not soe Clensed but that thorowe the
marriages which they hadd made and mixture with
the people of the land duringe their longe contynuance
theare they hadd lefte noe pure drop of Spannishe
bloud noe nor of Romane nor of Scythian, so that of
all nations under heavene I suppose the Spanierd is the
moste mingled moste vncerteine & moste bastardlie:


wherfore moste foolyshlye doe the Irishe thincke to ennoble
them selues by wrestinge the Auncestry from the spanierd
whoe is vnhable to deryve him self from anie certeine
Eudox: yowe speake verie sharplie Irenius in dishoner of
the spanierd whome some other boaste to be the onlye
brave nation vnder the skye
Iren: Soe surelie he is a verie braue manne neither is
that which I speak anie thinge to his derogacion for in
that I said he is a mingled people it is noe dispraise
For I thincke there is noe nation nowe in Christendome nor
muche farther but is mingled and Compounded with others
For it was a singuler providence of god and a moste
admirall purpose of his wisdome to drawe these
Northerne heathen nations downe into these Christen partes
wheare they might receyve Christianitie & to mingle
nations soe remote soe miraculusly to make as it were
one kindred and bloode of all people and eache to have
knowledge of him
Eudox: Nether haue yowe sure anie more dishonered the
Irishe For yowe haue brought them from verie great
and Auncient nations as anie were in the wourlde
howe ever fondlie they affecte the Spanishe, For
bothe the Scithians and the Gawles were two as mighty
nacions as ever the worlde brought Fourthe, But
is there anie token denominacion or moniment of the
Gaules yet remayninge in Ireland as theare is of
the Scithians. /
Iren: Yea surelie verie manie for their is firste
in the Irishe language manie wordes of Galles
remayninge and yet dailie vsed in Comon speche:
Eudox: whie what was the Gallish speache is there
anie parte of it still vsed amongest anie nation
Iren: Gallish speche is the verie British the which
was verie generallie vsed here in all Britanye before
the Commynge of the Saxons and yet is retayned of the
welchmen: /

welshemen and Cornishmen and the Britons of France
thoughe tyme wourkinge alteracion of all thinges
and the tradinge and enterdeale with other
nations rounde about haue changed and greatly
altered the dialect therof but yett the
Originall wordes appeare to be the same, as
who that liste to reade in Cambon and Buckanan
maie see at large Besides there be manie
places as havens hills townes and Castles
which yett beare name from the Galles of the
which Buckhanan reherseth above thre hundred
in Scotland and I can I thincke recounte nere
as manie in Ireland Morover there be of
the old Gallees certen nations yet remayninge in
Ireland which detaine the ould denominacions of
the Gaules as the Menapif the Cancj the Venti &
others By all which manie other verie reasonable
probabillities which this shorte Course will not suffer
to be laid fourthe yt appereth that the Cheif
Inhabitantes in Ireland were Galles cominge
thither firste out of Spaine and afterwardes from beside
Tanius where the Gothes the Hunns and the Getes
satt downe they alsoe beinge (as it is said of some)
Auncient Galles and lastlie passinge out of
Gallia it self from all the seacoastes of Belgia &
Celtica into all the Southerne Coastes of Ireland
which they possessed and inhabited whervppon it is
as this daie amongest the Irjshe a Comon vse
to Call anie straunge inhabitante theare
amongest them from the Gaules /.
Eudox: This is verie leiklie for evene soe ded
those Galles aunciently possesse and people all
the Sourtherne Coastes from Brittaine which yet
retayne their ould names as the Belga in
Sommetshire Wilshire and parte of Hamshire


Atrebatij in Barkshire Regni in sussex and surrey with
manie others, Nowe thus farre then I vnderstand your
oppinion that the Scythians planted •• in the Northe
partes of Ireland the Spanierds (for soe wee wil call them
what ever they were that Came from Spaine) in
the weste, the Gawles in the southe, soe that
theare remayneth only the Easte partes towardes
England which I woulde be gladd to vnderstand
from whence ye thincke they were peopled.
Iren Marye I thincke from the Brittons themselues
of which thoughe theare be little footinge nowe
remayninge by reason that the saxons afterwardes
and lastilie the Englishe drivinge out all the firste
Inhabitantes therof ded possesse & people it
them selues yet amongest the Tooles the Brins
the Cavanaghes and other nations in leinster there
is some memorye of the Brittons remayninge
as the Tooles of the ould Britishe worde are
Called Toll that is in hilly Country the
Brins of the Britishe word Brin that is
woodye And the Cavanaghes of Caune that
is stronge soe that in these thre people
the verie denominations of the olde Britons
dothe still remayne Besides when anie flieth
vnder the succor & proteccion of anie againste
an enemye he cryeth vnto him Cummerick
that is Britton helpe for the Britton is called
in his owne language Cumeraige, furthermore
to prove the same Ireland is by Diodorus Siculus
and by strabo called Britania and a parte of
greate Brittany. Finallie it appereth by good
recorde yet extant that kinge Arthur and
before him Gurgunt hadd all that Island
in his alleigance and subieccion Hereunto I
Coulde add

Coulde add manie probabilities of the names of places
personnes and speches as I ded in the former
but they should be to longe in this place and
I reserve them for an other, And thus ye
have harde my opinion howe all that Realme
of Ireland was firste peopled and by what
nations, After all which the Saxons succeedinge
ded wholie subdewe it vnto them selues for
firste Egfrydd k. of the Northumbers ded
vtterlie waste and subdue yt as apperethe
owte of Bedas complaint against him, and
afterwardes kinge Edgard brought it vnder
his obedience as appereth by an Auncient
Recorde in which it is founde written that he
subdewed the Islandes of the Northe evene
vnto Norwaye and their kinges ded bringe
into his subieccion
Eudox: This Rippinge vpp of Auncestries
is verie pleasinge vnto me & in dede favoreth
of good conceipt and some readinge withhall
I see herbye howe profitable traveile and
experience of Forreyne nations is to him
that will applye them to good purpose,
Nether in deed I would haue thoughte
that anie soche antiquities coulde haue bene
avouched for the Irishe that makethe me
the more to longe to see some other of
your observacions which ye haue gathered
out of that Country, and haue earste
half promised to put forthe, And sure
in this minglinge of nations appereth as yow
earste well ••• noted) a wounderfull


providence and purpose of allmightie god that
stirrdd vpp the people in the furtheste part
of the worlde to seeke owt those regions so remote
from them & by that meanes bothe to restore theire
decaied habitations & to make him self knowen to the heathen
but was theare I praye yowe noe more generall
unpeoplinge of that Island then firste by the Scythians
which ye saie were the Scotts & afterwardes by the Affricans
besides the Gaules and saxons. /
Iren: yes theare was an other and that the laste
and the greateste which was by the Englishe
when the Earle strangbowe havinge conquered
that Lande deliuered vpp the same vnto the handes
of Henrye the second then kinge whoe sent over
thither greate store of gentlemen & other warlike
people amongest whome he distributed and setled
soche a stronge Collony therin as never since could
with all the subtile practises of the Irishe be rooted
oute but abide still a mightie people of soe
manie as remayne Englishe of them. /
Eudox: what is this that yowe saie of soe many
as remayne Englishe of them, whie are not
they that were once Englishe abidinge Inglishe still
Iren: Noe for the most parte of them are degenerated &
growen allmost mere Irishe & more malitious to
the Inglishe then the very Irishe them selues /
Eudox: what heare I and is it possible that an
Englishman brought vpp naturally in soche sweet
Civillity as England affordes finde soche likinge
in that Barborus rudenes that he should forget
his owne nature and forgoe his owne nation
howe maie this be or what I praye yowe maye
be the Cause therof.
Iren: Surelie nothinge but the first evill ordinance
and Institution of that Comon welthe, But
therof nowe is here noe fitt place to speake
least by

leaste by the occasion therof offeringe matter of a
longe discourse, wee might be drawen from this
that we have in hand namely the handlinges of abuses
in the customes of Ireland /.
Eudox: In trueth Irenius ye doe well remember
the plott of your firste purpose but yett from
that me seemes ye haue muche swarued in all
this longe discourse of the firste inhabiting of
Ireland for what is that to your purpose.
Iren: Truelie verie Materiall for if ye marked
the Course of all that speche well it was to
shewe by what meanes the Customes that
nowe are in Ireland beinge some of them in deede
verie strange and almost heathnishe were first
brought in & that was I said by those nations
from whome that Countrye was firste peopled
for the deffrence of Manners & Customes dothe
followe the deffrence of nations & people the
which I haue declared vnto yowe to have ben
three speciall which seated themselues here to
wytt firste the Scithians then the Gaules and
lastlie the Englishe notwithstandinge that I am
not ignorant that theare were sondrye other
nations which gott footinge in that land of the which
there yet remayne diuerse greate families and
septes of whome I will also in their proper places
make mencion /
Eudox ye bringe yor self Iren verie well into
the waye notwithstandinge that it semeth ye were never
out of the waie, But nowe that ye haue passed
throughe those antiquities which I Could have
wished not soe soone in deed, begin when yt please
yow, to declare what customes & manners have
bene deryved from those nations to the Irishe
and which of them ye finde faulte withall /.


Iren: I will then beginne to Count their Customes in
the same ordre that I Counted there nations and
Firste with the Scithians or scottishe manners Of the
which theare is one vse amongest them to kepe there
Cattell & to live them selues the moste parte of the yere
in Bollies pasturinge vppon the mounteines and
waste wilde places & removinge still to the freshe
lande as they haue depastured the former the which
appereth plaine to be the mannor of the Scythians
as ye maie reade in Olaus magnus & Iohannes Boemus and
yet is vsed amongest all the tartarians and the people
about the Caspian sea which are naturallie Scythians
to live in Herds as they call them beinge the verie same
that the Irishe Bollyes are dryvinge there Cattell contynuelly
with them & feedinge only on their milke & white meates
Eudox: what faulte can ye finde with this custome
for thoughe it be an old Scythian vse, yet it is verye
behooful in this Countrye of Ireland wheare theare
are greate mounteynes and waste desartes full of
grasse that the same shoulde be eaten downe and
nourishe manie thowsandes of Cattell for the good of
the whole realme which can not me thincke well be
anie other waie then by kepeinge those Bollies as
there ye haue shewed. /
Iren: But by this Custome of Bollyinge there
growe in the meane tyme manie great enormityes
vnto that Commen wealthe For firste if theare
be anie owtlawes or loose people (as they are
never withowt some) which live vppon stealthes
and spoyles, they are evermore succoured and
finde releif onlye in those Bollies beinge ••••••
vppon those waste places wheras ells they
should be driven shortlie to sterue or come
downe to the townes to steale relief, where
by one meanes or other they would soonne be
Caught Besides soche stealthes of Cattell
as they make.
they bringe

they bringe continuallie to those Bollies where they are
receyved readilie and the theif harboured from
daunger of Lawe Or soche officers as mighte
lighte vppon him Moreover the people that
live thus in these Bolies growe therbie the
more Barbarous and live more licentiouslye
then they Coulde in townes usinge what meanes
they liste and practisinge what mischeifes &
villanies they will either againste the gouernment
there generallie by their Combinations or againste
privat men whome they maligne by steallinge
there goodes or murderinge them selues, For
theare they thincke them selues half exempted
from Lawe and obedience, and havinge once
tasted fredome doe leike a steare that hathe
beinge longe out of his yoke grudge & repine
ever after to come vnder Rule againe:
Eudox By your speche Irenius I perceave
more evill come by this vse of bollies then
good by their grazinge, and therfore it maie
well be reformed but that muste be in his
due Course do yowe proceed to the next
Iren: They haue an other custome from the Scithians
that is the wearinge of mantles and longe Glibbes which
is a thicker curled bushe of haier hangeinge downe
over theare eyes & moonstrously disguisinge them which
are bothe verie badd & hurtfull/. ./
Eudox: doe ye thincke that the mantle cometh from
the Scithians, I would surelie thincke otherwise
For by that which I have redd it appereth that
moste nations in the wourlde aunciently vsed the
mantle for the Iewes vsed it as ye maye reade of
Elias mantle of
The Caldees vsed it also as ye maie reade in Diadorus
the Egiptians leikwise vsed it as ye maie reade
in Herodotus maie be gathered by the discription of
Berenice, in the Greke Comentaries vppon Callimachus
The grekes


The grekes alsoe vsed it Aunciently as apperes by venus
mantle lyned with thoughe afterwardes they
changed the forme therof into ther clokes called Pallia as
some of the Irishe alsoe vse And Auncient latines
and romanes vsed it as ye maie reade in virgill
whoe was a verie great Antiquary: that Evander
when Æneas came to him att •his Feaste ded entertaine
& feaste him sittinge on the grounde and beinge on
mantles, In soe muche as he vseth the verie wourde
Mantile for a mantle / Mantilia hmi sternunt, soe that
it semeth that the mantle was a generall habite to
moste nations & not proper to the Scithians only as ye suppose
Iren I cannot denie but auncientlie it was comon to moste
and yet sithens disvsed and laid awaie, But in this
later age of the wourlde since the decaie of the romay[ne]
empier it was renued & brought in againe by these
northern nations when breakinge out of their could caves
& frozen habitacion into the sweet soyle of Europe they
brought with them their vusuall weedes fitt to sheild
the Could and that continuall froste to which they
hadd att home bene envred The which yet they lefte
not off by reason that they were in perpetuall warres
with the nations whome they had invaded but still removeing
from place to place carried allwaies with them
that weed as their howse their bedd and their garment
and cominge lastlie into Ireland they found theare
more speciall vse therof, by reason of that raw
Coulde Climate, from whome it is nowe growne
into that generall vse in which that people nowe
have it, Afterwardes the Africanes succeedinge
yet findinge the leke necessitye of that garment
contynued the like vse therof./
Eudox since then the necessitie therof is soe comodious
as ye alleadge that it is in steade of howsinge •••
beddinge & Cloathinge what reason haue yowe
then to wishe soe necessarye a thinge caste of ./
Iren: Bicause the Comoditie dothe not countervaile
the discomoditie, for the inconveniencees which therbie
doe arise are muche more manie, for it is a fitte
howse for

howse for ann owtlawe, a meet bedd for a rebell, and
an apte Cloke for a theif, firste the owtlawe beinge
for his manie Crymes and villanies banished
from the townes & howses of honest men are
wanderinge in waste places farre from daunger
of Lawe maketh his mantle his howse •• &
vnder yt Covereth him self from the wrathe
of heaven from the offence of the earthe and
from the sighte of men when it rayneth it is
hys pentise when it bloweth it is his tente, when
it freizeth it is his tabernacle in somer, he can
weare it Loose in winter he can wrapp it close
att all tymes he can vse yt never heavye
never Cumbersome, likewise for a Rebell it is
as servicable, For in warr that he maketh (yf
at leaste it deserve the name of warre) when
he still flieth from his foe and lurketh in the
thicke woodes and straight passages waytinge
for advantages it is his bedd, ye & allmoste
all his houshould stuffe, For the woode is his
howse againste all weathers, and his mantle is
his Cave to sleepe in, Therin he wrappeth him
self rounde and ensconseth him self strongly
againste the gnatte, which in the Countrye doe more
anoye the naked Rebels whilste they kepe the
woodes and doe more sharplie wound them then
all their Enemies swordes or speares which canne
seldome come nighe them, ye and oftentymes ther
mantle serveth them when they are nere driven
beinge wrapped about their lefte arme in steade
of a targett, for it is harde to Cut thoroughe yt
with a sworde besides it is lighte to beare to
throwe awaie and beinge as they then comonly
are naked it is to them all in all lastlie for
a theif it is soe handsome, as it maye seme
it was firste invented for him for vnder yt
he can cleanly convaye anie fitt Pillage that


Comethe handsomelie in his waie, and when he goeth
abroade in the nighte on freebootinge it is his beste
& surest frende, for lienge as they often doe twoe
or three nightes togeather abroade to watche for
their bootye, with that they can prettil shroude them
selues vnder a bushe or a banckes side till they
maye convenientlye doe their errand, And when all
is done he can in his mantle passe thoroughe
anie towne or Companie beinge Close whoded over
his heade as he vseth from knowledge of any
to whome he is indaungered Besides all this
he or anie man ells that is disposed to mischeif
or villanie maie vnder his mantle goe privily
armed without suspicion of anie Carrie his
headepiece his skeane or Pistoll if he please to
be allwaies in a Readines / Thus necessarye and
fittinge is a Mantle for a badd man & surelye
for a badd huswief it is noe lesse convenient for
some of them that be these wandringe weomen
called of them Monashut, it is half a wardrobe:
for in sommer ye shall finde her arrayed comonly
but in her smocke and mantle to be more
readie for her light services, In winter and
in her traveile it is her Cloke & safeguarde &
alsoe a Coverlett for her lewde exercise, And
when shee hathe filled her vessell vnder yt
shee can hide bothe her burden & her bl[am]e
yea when her bastard is borne it serves in
steadd of all her swadlinges Cloutes her mantles
her Cradles with ••• ••••• •••••• which others are vainly
covered, And as for all other good weomen Whiche
love to doe but litle wourke howe handsome yt is
to lye in & slepe or to loose them selues in the sunne
shine, they that haue bene but a while in Ireland
can well witnes. Sure I am that ye will
thincke it verie vnfitt good huswief to stirre in
or to buisye •• her self about her huswiferye in sorte
as they should, These be some of the abuses for
which I

which I would thincke it meet to forbidd all mantles
Eudox. O evill mynded man that havinge reckned
vpp soe manie vses of a mantle will ye wishe
it to be abandoned, Sure I thincke Diogines dishe
ded never serue his master more turnes, notwithstandinge
that he made his dishe his Cupp his Capp his
measuer his waterpott. then a mantle doth not Irishman
But I see they be all to badd intentes, and therfore
I will ioyne with yowe in abolishinge it, But
what blame laie yowe to the Glibb: take heede I
praie yowe that yowe be not to buisye therwith
for feare of your owne blame, seeinge our Englishmen
take yt vpp in soche a generall fashion to weare
there haier soe vnmeasurablie longe that some
of them exceed the longest Irishe Glibbes.
Iren: I feare not the blame of anie vndeserved
misleikes but for the Irishe Glibbes, I saye that
besides their salvage brutishnes & loathlie filthines
which is not to be named they are fitt maskes as
a mantle is for a theif: For when soever he hath
Runne him self into that perill of law that he
will not be knowne he either cutteth of his
Glibbe quite, by which he becometh nothinge leke him
self or puttethe it soe lowe downe over his eies
that it is verie harde to discerne his thevishe
Countenance, And therfore fitt to be trussed vpp
with the mantle /.
Eudox Truelie these three Scithian abuses I houlde
moste fitt to be taken awaie with sharpe
pennalties, and suer I wounder howe they haue
ben kept thus longe notwithstandinge soe many
good provicions & ordres as haue bene devised
for that people /.
Iren: The Cause therof shall appere to yowe
hereafter but lett vs nowe goe forwarde with
our Scithian customes of which the next the next that
I haue to treate of is their manner of the raysinge
the ioye in


the ioye in their conflictes & at other troublesome tymes of
vprore, The which is verie naturall Scythian as ye•
haue Redd in Diodorus Siculus & in Heroditus discribeinge
the Manner of the Scythians & Parthians cominge
to geive the charge att their battalls: at the which it is said
that they came Runinge with a terrible yell and h
as if heaven & earthe woulde haue gone togither which
is the verie Image of the Irishe hubub which there
kerne vse att their firste encounters, Besides the same
herodotus writeth that they vsed in their battalls
to Call vppon the names of their Capteines or
Generalls & sometimes vppon their greatest kinge
deceased as in that battall of Tomyris againste
Cyrus which costome to this daye manifestlie appereth
amongeste the Irishe, For att their ioyninge of
battell they leikwise call vppon their Capteines
name or the worde of his Auncestors, as they
vnder Oneale cry landargabo that is the bloody
hande which is Oneles badge they vnder Obryon
call which is And to theire
ensample the olde Inglishe also which there remaineth
haue gotten vpp their cryes Scythian like as cromabo
& Butlerabo. and herein alsoe lieth open an other very
manifeste proof that the Irishe be Scyths or Scotts
for in all their encounters they vse our verie Comon worde
cryinge Ferragh Ferragh which is a Scottishe worde
to weete the name of one of the firste kinges of
Scotland called Fera•gus or fergus which fought against
the Pictes as ye maie reade in Buckanan de Rebus
, But as other wryte it was longe before
that the name of their Cheif Capteine vnder
whome they fought againste the Affricanes the
which was then soe fortunate vnto them that ever
since they have vsed to Call vppon his name in
theire battayles,
Eudox: Betwene me this observacion of yours Irenius is
verie good & delightfull for beyonde the blinde concept
of some whoe I remembre have vppon the same

worde Feragh made a verie blunt coniecture
as namelie master stanihurste whoe thoughe he be
the same Countryman borne that should searche
more nerelie into the secrete of these thinges
yet hathe strayed from the truthe all the heavens
wyde (as they saie) for he theruppon groundeth a
verie grosse ymaginacion that the Irishe should
discende from the Ægiptians which came into that
Island firste vnder the leadinge of one Scota the
daughter of Pharao whervppon they vse (saithe he)
in all their battalls to call vppon the name of
Pharao cryinge Feragh Feragh surelie he shoote
wyde on the bowe hande and verie farre from the
marke, For I would firste knowe of him what
Auncient grownde of aucthorytie he hathe for
soche a sencelesse fable, And if he haue anie of
the rude Irishe bookes as it maie be he hathe
yet me seemes a man of his lerninge should not
soe lightlie haue bene carried awaie with ould
wives tales from approvance of his owne
reason, For whither Scota be leike an Ægiptian
worde or smacke of anie lerninge or iudgmente let
the learned iudge but his Scota rather comes of the
Greeke Scotos that is darkenes which hathe not lett
him see the lighte of the trueth /.
Iren: yowe knowe not Eudoxius howe well master stanihurst could
see in the darke perhaps he hathe owles or Cattes eies
but well I wote he seeth not well the verie lighte
in matters of more wighte, But as for Feragh I
haue told yow my Coniecture only and yett this
muche more to prove a likelyhoode that there be
yett at this daie in Ireland manie Irishe men
Cheifflie in Northerne partes called by the name
of Feragh, but let that nowe be, This onlye for
this place suffizeth, that it is a worde vsed in
their Comon hububs the which with all the reste
is to be abolished for that it discouereth an affectacion
of Irishe Captenry which in this platforme I endevor
speciallie to beate downe, There be other sortes
of Cryes alsoe vsed amongest the Irishe which
savor greatlye


savor greatlie of the Scythian barbariscme as their
lamentacions att their burialls with dispaierfull out-
cries, and imorderate waylinges the which master stanihurst
might also haue vsed for an argument to prove the
Ægiptians for soe in scripture it is menconed that the
Ægiptians lamented for the deathe of Ioseph others thincke
this Custome to come from the spanierdes for that they
doe soe immuesuarably likwise bewaile their deed but
the same is not proper spannishe but alltogither
heathnishe brought in first thither either by the
Scythians or by the Mores which were Affricanes
but longe possessed that Country for it is the maner
of the Pagans & Infidells to be intemperate in their
waylinges of their dead for that they hadd noe
faithe nor hope of saluacion And this ill Custome
alsoe is speciallie noted by Diodorus Siculus to have
bene in the Scythians & ys yett amongest the
Northerne Scottes. /
Eudox: This is suer an ill custome• also but yet dothe not
soe muche concerne ciuill reformacion as abuse in religion
Iren: I ded not rehearse it as one of the abuses which
I thought moste wourthie of reformacion but havinge
made mention of Irishe cryes I thought this manner
of cryinge & howlinge not ympertinent to be not vnciuill
and Scithian like For by those ould customes and other
like coniecturall circumstances the discentes of nations
can onlye be proved wheare other monimentes of wrytinges
be not remayninge:
Eudox: Then I praie yowe whensoeuer in your discourse
yowe meet with them by the waie doe not shunne
but bouldly towche them For besides their greate
pleasuer and delight for their antiquity they beinge
great profitt and helpe vnto Civillitie /.
Iren Then sithe yowe will haue it soe I will heer
take occasion, since I latelie spake of their manner
of cryes in ioyninge battayle, to speake also somewhat
of the manner of their Armes & arraye in Battell with
other Customes

other Customes perhaps wourthe not•inge, And firste of
their Armes and weapons amongest which theire
broade swordes are proper Scithian for soche the Scythes
vsed commonlie as ye• maie reade in Olaus Magnus
And the same also the old Scottes vsed as ye maye
reade in Buckanan & in
where the Pictures of them are in the same forme
expressed Also their shortebowes & little quivers
with shorte bearded arrowes verye Scythian as ye
maye reade in the same Olaus and the same sort
bothe of Bowes quivers and arrowes are att this
daie to be seene comonly amongest the Northerne
Irishe whose Scottish Bowes are not paste thre
quarters of a yard longe with a stringe of
wreathed hempe slacklie bent and whose
arrowes are not muche aboue half an elne longe
tipped with steele heades made like common
broade arrowes heades but muche more sharp
and slender that thei enter into an armed man
or horse moste cruelly, notwithstandinge that thei
are shott fourthe weakelye Moreover their longe
broade sheildes made but of wicker Roddes which
are commonly vsed amongest the said Northerne
Irishe, but specially of the Scottes are brought
from the Sithians as ye maie reade in Olaus
magnus Solynus and others /.
Likewise their goeinge to battell without Armor
on their bodies or heades but trustinge only
to the thicknes of their glibbes the which thei
saye will sometymes beare of a good stroke
ys mere salvage and Scythian, as ye maye
see in the said Images of the old Scythes or
Scottes sett forthe by Herodianus and other besides
their confused kinde of marche in heapes
without anie ordre or arraye their clashinge
of swordes togithers their fyers comeinge vpon
their enemies, and their mannor of fighte resembleth
alltogither that which is reade in all histories to
have bene vsed of the Scythians by which it maie


Almoste infallablye be gathered togither with other
Circumstances that the Irishe are verie Scotts
or Scythes originally thoughe sythens intermingled with
manie other nations repaieringe & ioyninge vnto them
And to these I may also add an other verie
stronge Coniecture which Cometh to my mynde that
I haue often observed theare amongest them, that
is Certen religions and Ceremonies which are verye
superstitiouslye yet vsed amongest them the which are
alsoe written by sundrye Aucthors to have bene observed
amongest the Scithians by which it maye •• verye
vehemently be presumed that the Nations were
Auncientlye all one, For Plutarche as I remember
in his treatis of Homere endevoringe to searche out
the truthe what Contreyman Homere was proveth
it moste stronglie (as he thincketh) that he
was an Aolian borne, for that in discribinge
a sacrifice of the Grekes he omitted the burninge
of the Chynebone Called the which all the
other Grecyans saue only the Æolians doe vse to
burne in their sacrifices, Also for that he maketh
the entralls to be rosted on fyue spittes The
which was the proper manner of the Aolians
who onlye of all the nations & contreys of Gecia
vsed to sacrifice in that sorte wheras all the reste of
the Grekes vsed to roste them vppon three spittes
by which he enferreth necessarilie that Homer was
a Chian. And by the same reason maie I as
reasonablye Conclude that the Irishe are discended
from the Scithians for that they vse into this daye
some of the same Ceremonies which the Scythians
Auncientlye vsed, As for example ye maie reade
in lucian in that sweete Diologue which is intituled
Texaxis or of Frendshipp that the Comon oathe
of the Scythians was by the sworde and by the fier
for that they accompted those two two speciall divyne
powers which • shoulde worke vengeaunce or periurous
Soe doe the Irishe at this daie when they goe to any
Battell saye Certeine prayers or Charmes to ther swordes
makinge a Crosse

makinge a Crosse therwith vppon the earth and thrustinge
the pointe ••••of their blades into the grownde
thinckinge therbie to haue the better successe in
fighte, Also they vse to sweare Comonly by ther
swordes, likwise at the kindlinge of the fyer and
lightinge of Candles they saie Certenne prayers
and vse some other supersticious rightes, which shewe
that they haue the fyer and light for all
those Northerne Nations havinge bene vsed to
be annoyed with muche Coulde & darknes are
wont therfore to haue the fier & the sonne
in greate veneracion like as Contrarywise the
mores and Ægiptians which are muche offended
and greived with muche extreame heate of
the sunne doe everie morninge when the sunne
Riseth fall to Cursinge and blaminge of him
as their plague and Cheif scourge, Alsoe
the Scythians vsed when they would binde anie
solemne vowe or Combinacion to drincke a bole
of blowde togither vowinge therbie to spende
there laste bloode in that quarrell, And
evene soe doe the wilde Scottes as ye maye
reade in Buckhanan and some of the Northerne
Irishe ye maie also reade in the same booke
in the tale of Arsacomus that it was the
manner of the Scythians when anie one of them
was heavilie wronged and woulde Assemble
vnto him anie forces of people to ioyne with
him in his revendge to sitt in some publique
place for Certeine daies vppon an oxe side to
which theare would resorte all sutche personnes
as beinge disposed to take Armes woulde
enter into his paie or ioyne with him in his quarell
And the same ye maie likwise reade to haue
••• beene the Auncient manner of the wilde
Scottes which are indeede the verie naturall Irishe


Moreover the Scythians vsed to swere by their kinges hande as
Olaus shewith and soe doe the Irishe vse nowe to sweare by their
lordes hande and to for sweare yt, and to forsweare yt holde yt
more Criminall then to sweare by god And alsoe the Scythians
said that they were once euery yere turned into Wolues and
soe it is written of the Irishe, Thoughe Master Cambden in a
better sence doe suppose it was a disease Called Hicantropia
soe named of the woulf And yet some of the Irishe doe vse
to make the woulf their gossip, The Scithians alsoe vsed
to seethe the fleshe in the hide: And soe doe the Northe
Irishe, yet the scythians likewise vsed to the bloode of
the beaste livinge and to make meate therof And soe
doe the Irishe still in the Northe Manie soche customes
I coulde recounte vnto yowe as of their ould manner
of marrieinge of burienge of dauncinge of singenge of
feastinge of Cursinge thoughe Christians haue wyped
out the moste parte of them by resemblance wherof it
might plainelie appere to yowe that the nations are
the same but that by the reckoninge of these same
which I haue toulde vnto yowe I finde my speche drawen
out to a greater lengthe then I purposed Thus
muche only this tyme I hope shall suffise yow
to thincke that the Irishe are Aunciently deduced
from the Scythians. / .
Eudox: Surelie Iren: I haue in these fewe wourdes heard that
from yowe which I would haue thought hadd bene
ympossible to have bene spoken of tymes soe remote
and Customes soe Auncient with delight wherof I
was all that while as it were entranced and carried
soe farre from my self, as that I am nowe righte
sorrie that ye ended soe soone, But I marveile
muche howe it Cometh to passe that in soe longe
Contynuance of tyme and manie ages came betwene
yet not anie iotte of those ould Rites, & superstitions
Customes shoulde remayne amongest them /
I Iren It is

Iren: It is noe cause of wonder at all, For it is the Manner
of all the barbarous nations to be verie superstitious
and dilligent observors of oulde Customes and
antiquities which they receyve by Contynuall tradition
from their parentes by recordinge of their bardes
and Cronicles and songes and by dailie vse &
ensample of their Elders . /
Eudox: But have yowe I praie yow observed
anie such Customes amongest them brought likewise
from the Spanierdes or Gawles as these from
the Scythians that maie sure be verie materiall
to your firste purpose . /
Iren Some perhaps I haue and whoe that will by
this occasion more dilligentlie marke & Compare
their Customes shall finde manie more But there
are fewer I thincke remayninge then of the
Scythians by reason that the partes which they then
possessed lienge vppon the Coaste of the Westerne
and southerne sea were sithens contynually visited
with strangers and forraine people repairinge
thither for trafficke & for fishinge which is very
plentifull vppon those Coastes for the trade
and enterdeale of seacoaste nations one with an
other wourketh more Civilitye & good fashions /.

which are seldome sene of Forreyners yet some of soche
as I haue noted I will recount vnto yowe And
firste I will for the better Creditt of the reste shewe
yowe one out of theire statutes amongest which yt is
enacted that noe man shall weare his bearde
onlie on the vpper lipp like Mustachios shavinge
all the rest of his Chin. And this was the
Auncient manner of the Spanierds, as yet it is
of all the Mahometans to Cut all their beardes
Closse saue only their muschacios, which they were
Longe, And the Cause of the vse was for that
they beinge bredd in hott Countrye founde muche
haier on their


haier on their faces and other partes to be noyous
vnto them For which Cause they ded Cutt it moste
awaie like as Contrarilye all other nations brought
vpp in Coulde Contreys doe vse to nourishe their haier
to kepe them the warmer which was the cause that
the Scythians and Scottes ware glibbes as I showed
yowe to kepe their heades warme and longe beardes
to defende their faces from Coulde from them
alsoe I thincke came saffron shirtes & smockes which
was devised by them in those hott Countreis where
saffron is verie Comon and rief for avoydinge of
that evill which cometh by muche sweatinge and
longe wearinge of lynnen Alsoe the weomen
amongest the olde Spanierdes hadd the charge of
all houshould affaiers bothe at home and abroade
as Boemius writeth thoughe nowe these spanierdes
vse it quite otherwise: And soe haue the Irishe
weomen the truste and Care of all thinges
bothe at home and in the feilde likewise rounde
leather Targettes is the spannishe fashion whoe
vsed it for the moste parte painted which in Ireland
they vse alsoe manie places coloured after there
rude fashion, Moreover their manner of their
weomens ridinge on the wronge side of the horse
I meane with their faces towardes the right side
as the Irishe vse yt, as they saie oulde spannishe
and as some saie Africane for amongest them the
weomen (they saie) vse soe to ryde and soe to ryde
acrosse: Alsoe the deepe smocke sleive hanginge
to the grownde which the Irishe weomen vse they
saye was ould spannishe & is vsed yet in barbary:
and yet that should seeme rather to be an olde
Inglishe fashion for in Armory the fashion of
the Manche which is geivene in Armes by manie beinge
in deed nothinge ells but a sleive is fashoned much
leike to that sleive, And that knightes in Auncient
tymes vsed

tymes vsed to weare their mistresses or loves sleive vppon
their Armes as appereth by that is written of
Sr Lancelott thatt wonne the sleive of the faier maid
of Asteroth in a torney wherat Quene Gremiver was
muche displeased
Eudox: your Conceipt is verie good and well fittinge
for thinges so farre from certentye of knowledge
and learninge onlie vppon likliehoodes & cuniectures
but have yowe anie Customes remayninge from
the Gawles or Brittons /.
Iren: I haue observed a fewe of either & whoe
will better seartche into them maie finde more
& firste the profession of their Bardes was as
Cesar writeth) vsuall amongeste the Gawles &
the same was alsoe Comon amongest the Brittons
& is not yet altogither lefte of the welche which
are theare posteritie /. For all the fashions of
of the Gawles & Brittons as he testifieth were
muche like the longe deirtes came alsoe from the
Gaules as ye maie reade in the same Cesar &
in Iohn Boemus likewise the said Boemus writeth
that the Gaules vsed swordes a handfull broade
& soe doe the Irishe nowe, Alsoe that they vsed
longe wicker sheildes in battell that could cover
their whole bodies & soe doe the Northerne Irishe
But bicause I haue not seene soche fashioned
targettes vsed in the southerne partes but only
amongest these Northerne people & Irishe Scottes
I doe thincke that they were broughte in rather
by the Scythians then by the Gawles, Also the
Gaules vsed to drincke their enemyes bloode & to
painte them selues therwith, Soe also they wryte
that the oulde Irishe were wount / And soe haue
I sene some of the Irishe doe but not their enemyes
but frendes blood: as namelie at the execution of
a notable traytor at lamericke called Murroghe
Obrien I


Obrien I sawe an olde woman which was his foster
mother take vpp his heade whilste he was quartered
and sucked vpp all the bloode roninge therabout sayeinge
that the earthe was not wourthie to drincke yt and
therwith alsoe steeped her face & brest and torned
her heare cryenge & shickinge owt most terriblye:

Eudox: ye haue verie well ronne thoroughe suche customes
as the Irishe have derived from the firste ould nations
which Inhabited that Lande namelie the Scythians the
Spanierdes the Galles the Brittons, It nowe
remaineth that yowe take in hande the Customes
of the oulde Englishe which are amongest the
Irishe: of which I doe not thincke that ye shal
haue muche to finde faulte with anie Conscideringe
that by the English moste of the ould badd Irishe
Customes were abollished & more Civill fashions
brought in their stead: /
Iren: yowe thincke otherwise Eudox: then I doe
for the Cheiffest abuses which are nowe in the realme
are growen from the Inglishe, and the English
that were are nowe muche more lawles and
Licentious then the wilde Irishe: soe that as
muche Care as was then by them hadd to reforme
the Irishe, soe muche & more must nowe be
vsed to reforme them soe muche tyme dothe alter
the manners of men
Eudox That seemeth verie straunge which yowe
saie that men should soe muche degenerate from
their firste natures as to growe wilde ./
Irenius Soe muche can liberty & ill example doe
Eudox what libertye hadd the Englishe theare
more, then, then hadd here at home were not the
lawes planted amongest them at the firste & hadd
they not governeors to curbe & kepe them still in
awe and obedience . /
Iren They hadd but it was for the moste parte
soche as ded more hurte then good, For they hadd
governors for the moste parte them selues & comonlye
out of the two families of the Geraldines & the Butlers
bothe adversaries and corrivalls one against the other
whoe thought for the moste parte but deputies vnder
some of the


some of the kinges of Englandes sonnes bretheren or
other nere kinsmen whoe were the kinges lieutenantes
yet they swayed muche as they hadd all the Rule &
the others but the title, of which Butlers & Garaldines
albeit I muste confesse there were verie brave and
wourthie men as also of other peres of that Realme
made lorde deputies & les Iustices at sondrye tymes
yet thorowe greatnes of their late Conquestes and
signiories they grewe insolent, and bent bothe that
Regall Aucthoritie & alsoe their private powers one
againste an other to the vtter subversion of them selues
& strengthninge of the Irishe againe, This ye maie
reade plainelie discoured by a lre+ written from the
Cittisens of Corke out of Ireland to the E of Shrewisbu[ry]
then in England and remayninge yet vppon recorde both
in the tower of England & alsoe amongst the Cronicles
of Ireland wherin it is by them Complained that the
Englishe Lordes and gentlemen whoe then hadd great
possessions in Ireland began thorowe Pryde & insolencye
to make privat warres one against an other and
when either parte was weake they would wage & drawe
in the Irishe to their partie: By which meanes
they bothe greatlie encouraged and enhabled the
Irishe which till that tyme hadd bene shutt vp within
the Mounteines of Slewlogher & weakened and
dishabled them selues insomuche that their revenues
were wonderfullie empayerid, and some of them
which are theare reckoned to haue bene hable to
haue spent xij or xiijC poundes per annum of oulde
rent (that I maie saie noe more) besides there
Comodities of Creikes & havens were nowe scarse
hable to dispende the thirdd parte, From which
disorder and thorowe other huge Callamities which
haue Come vppon them therbie, they are nowe
growne to be allmost as lewde as the Irishe.
I meane of soche Inglishe as were planted above
towarde the weste for the Englishe pale haue
preserved it self thoroughe nerenesse of there state
in reasonable

in reasonable civilitye, but the reste which dwelle above
•••••••• in Connaght and Mounster which is the sweetest
soyle of Ireland and some in Leinster and Vlster
are degenerate and growne to be as very Patchockes
as the wilde Irishe ye & some of them haue quite
shaken of their Englishe names and put on Irishe that
they might be alltogither Irishe.
Eudox: Is it possible that anie shoulde soe farre
growe out of frame, that they should in soe short
space quite forgett their Country and their owne
names that is a most daungerous Lethargie
muche wourse then that of Messala Corvinus who
beinge a moste learned man thoroughe sicknes
forgott his owne name, But can yowe count vs
anie of this kinde /
Iren: I cannot but by report of the Irishe them
selues: whoe report the Marmahons in the Northe
were auncientlye Englishe to wit discended from
the fzvrsula which was a noble famelie in England
and that the same appereth by the signification
of their Irishe names likwise that the MacSwines
nowe in Vlster were Aunciently of the Veres
of England but that they them selues for hatred
of the Englishe soe disguised their names /.
Eudox: Colde they ever Conceyve anie soche
develishe disleike of their owne naturall Cuntreis
as that they would be ashamed of her name &
bite att the dugge from which they sucked lief . /
Iren: I wote well theare shoulde be none but
proude hartes doe oftentymes like wanton Coltes
kicke att their mothers as we reade Alcibiades
& Themistocles ded whoe beinge banished out of
Athens fledd vnto the kinge of Asia & theare
stirred him vpp to warre against their Cuntrye
in which warres they them selues were Cheiffteines
Soe they saie ded these MacSwins & Mackmahons
or rather Veres and fzursulies for private dispight
turne themselues


turne them selues against England For at soche tyme
as Robert vere E of Oxforde was in the Barons
warres againste kinge Richard the second throughe the
mallice of the peres banished the Realme & proscribed
he with his kinsman fzurslye fled into Ireland where
beinge prosecuted & afterwardes in England put to
deathe his kinsman theare remayninge behinde in
Ireland rebelled & conspireinge with the Irishe ded
quite caste of their Englishe name & allegance since
which time they haue ever soe remayned and have
still sithens bene Counted mere Irishe, the verye
like is reported of the Mackswines ma Mahons & Macksh[ehies]
of Mounster howe they likewise were Auncientlye Englishe
and old followers to the Earles of desmond vntill the
Raigne of k Edward the iiijth at which time the Earle
of desmond that then was Called Thomas beinge
thoroughe false subornacion as they saye of the Queene
for some offence by her against him Conceyved brought
to his deathe at Tredagh most vniustlye, notwithstandinge
that he was a verie good and sound subiect to the
kinge thervppon all his kinsmen of the Geraldines
which then was a mighty familye in Mounster in revenge
of that huge wronge rose into Armes againste the
kinge and vtterlie renounced & forsware all obedience
to the Crowne of England to whome the said
Mackswines Mackshehies & Mackamahons beinge then
servauntes and followers ded the like, and have sithens
ever soe Contynued, And with them they saie all the
people of Mounster and manie other of them which
were mere Inglishe thensforthe ioyned with the
Irishe againste the kinge & termed them selues
verie Irishe, takinge on them Irishe habittes and customes
which could never since be cleane wyped awaye
but the Contagion therof hathe remayned still
amongest their posterityes, of which sorte they saye
be moste of the Surnames which ende in an as Harman,
Shinan Mangnan &c The which nowe accompt them
selues naturall Irishe, Other great houses therbee
of the olde

of the olde Englishe in Ireland which thoroughe licentious
conversinge with the Irishe or marryinge & fosteringe
with them or lacke of meet nourture or other soche
vnhappie occasions have degendred from their auncient
dignities are nowe growne as Irishe as Ohanlans
(as the proverbe theare is) of which sorte theare
are two most pittifull Ensamples aboue the reste
to wit the Lord Breningham whoe beinge the most
Auncient Barron I thincke in England is nowe woxen
the most •••••• salvage Irishe namenge him self
Irishe like Maccorishe and the other is the great
Mortymere, whoe forgettinge howe great he was once
in Ingland or Englishe at all is nowe become the
moste barbarous of them all & is called Maccnemaria
And not muche better then he, is the olde Lord Courcie
whoe havinge lewdlie wasted all the landes and seignors
that he hadd and aliened them to the Irishe is himself
also nowe growne quite Irishe.
Eudox: In truthe this which yowe tell, is a moste
shamefull hearinge, and to be reformed with
sharpe censures in soe great personages to the terror
of the meaner For wheare the lorde & cheiff men
waxe soe barbourous and bastardlie what shalbe
hoped of the peasantes and Base people and
herebie sure wee haue made a faier waie vnto
your self to laie open the abuses of their evill
Customes which ye haue nowe next to declare
The which noe doubt but are verie bad and
Barbarous beinge borrowed from the Irishe as
their apperell their language their Rydinge
and manie other the like.
Iren ye cannot but thincke them sure to be very
brute & vncivill for were they att the beste that
they were of ould when they were brought in they
should in soe longe an alteracion of tyme seeme
very straunge and vncouth, for it is to be thought
that the


that the vse of all England was in the Raigne of
henrye the second when Ireland was firste
planted with Inglishe verie Rude and Barborous
soe as if the same should be nowe vsed in Ingland
by manie it woulde seeme wourthie of sharper
Correccion and of newe lawes for reformacion, but
it is but evene the other daie since England grewe
Civill Therfore in Countinge the evill customes
of the Englishe there, I will not haue regarde
whither the begininge therof were Englishe or
Irishe but will haue respecte onlye to the
inconvenience therof, And first I haue to finde
faulte with the abuse of Language that is
for the speakinge of Irishe amongst the Englishe
which as it is vnnaturall that anie people
shoulde love anothers Language more then their
owne soe is it verie inconvenient and the Cause
of manie other evills /.
Eudox: It seemeth strange to me that the Inglishe
shoulde take more delighte to speak that language
then theare owne wheras (they should me thinckes)
rather take scorne to acquainte their tongues
therto, for it it hathe ben ever the vse of the conqueror
to despise the language of the Conquered & to force him
by all meanes to learne his, Soe ded the Romanes
allwaies vse insomuche that theare is allmoste
noe nacion in the wourld but is springled with their
language It were good therfor (me thinckes) to
searche out the originall cause of the evill: for the
same beinge discouered a redresse therof wilbe the more
easilie provided: For I thincke it verie straunge that
the Englishe beinge soe manie and the Irishe soe fewe
as they then were lefte, the fewer should drawe the
more vnto there vse . /
Iren I suppose that the Cheiffe Cause of bringinge
in the Irishe language amongst them was specially
their fosteringe

their fosteringe & marrienge with the Irishe the which
are two most daungerous infeccions For firste
the Childe that sucketh the milke of the nourse
muste of necessitie learne his firste speche of her
the which beinge the firste that is evrid to his
tongue is ever after moste pleasinge vnto him
insoemuche as thoughe afterwardes be taught
Englishe yett the smacke of the Firste will
all waies abide with him and not only of the
speche but also of the manners & Conditions
for besides that younge Children be like Apes
which will affect & imitate what they see done
before them speciallie by their nurses, whome
they love soe well, they moreover drawe into
them selues togither with their sucke evene the
nature & disposition of their Nourses; for the
mynde followethe muche the temperature of
the bodie & alsoe the wourdes are the ymage
of the mynde soe as they proceedinge from
the mynde must be needes affected with the wordes
soe that the speche beinge Irishe the harte
must needes be Irishe for out of the aboundance
of the hart the tongue speaketh, The nexte
is the marrienge with the Irishe which howe daungerus
a thinge it is in all Common wealthes appereth
to euerie simplest sence and thoughe some great•••
ones have perhaps vsed suche matches with ther vassells
& haue of them neverthelesse raised wourthie
yssue as Telamon did with Tecmessa Allexander the
great with Roxane
yet the example is soe perillus as it is not to
be adventured for in steade of those fewe good
I would Count vnto them infinite manie evill
and indeed howe can soche matchinge but bringe
forthe an evill race seeinge that Comonly the
Childe taketh moste of his nature of the mother


besides speeche manners inclinacion which are for the moste parte
agreable to the Condicions of the mothers for by them they are
firste framed and fashioned soe what they receyve once
from them they will hardlie ever after forgoe Therfore
are these two evill Customes of fosteringe & marrienge with
the Irishe more Carefullie to be restrayned for of them
two the thirde that is the evill Custome of Language
which I spake of Cheifflye proceedeth /
Eudox: But are theare noe lawes allreadie provided for
avoydinge of this evill /
Iren Yes I thincke there be but as good never a whitt
as neuer the better withowte pennalties or lawes without
charge of execution, for soe theare is an other like
lawe enacted against wearinge of Irishe apparrell
but neuer the more it is obserued by anie or executed
by them that haue the Charge, For they in their
private discretions thincke it not Fytt to be forced
vppon the pore wretches of that Country which are
not wourthe the price of Englishe apparell nor expedient
to be practised amongest the habler sorte by reason
that the bare Countrye (saye they) dothe yeild no better
& were there better to be hadd yet these were fitter
to be vsed as namelie the mantle in traveillinge because
there be noe ynnes where meet beddinge maie be hadd
soe that his mantle serves him then for• a bedd, The
leather Quilted Iacke in iournyeinge and in Campinge
for that it is fittest to be vnder his shirt for anie
occasion of suddaine service as there happen maie
& to cover his thinne breeche on horsbacke, The
great lynnen Rowle which the weomen weare to
kepe there heades warme after Cuttinge there haier
which they vse in anie sicknes, Besides their thicke folded
lynnen shirtes theare longe sleived smockes there half
sleived Cotes theare silken fillettes and all the rest
they will devise some Cullor for either of Necessitie
or of antiquitye or of comelines

Eudox: But what Couller soeuer they alleadge me
thinckes it not expedient that the execution of a lawe
once ordayned shoulde be lefte to the discretion of
the officer but that without parciallitye or regard
it should be fullfilled aswell on the Inglishe as
Iren But they thincke this precisenes in reformacion
of apperell not to be soe materiall or greatly pertinent
Eudox: yes surelie but it is for mens apperell is
Commonlie made accordinge to their Condicions
and theare Conditions oftentymes gouerned by ther garmentes:
For the person that is gowned is by his gowne
put in mynde of gravitie & alsoe restrained from
lightnes by the verie vnaptnes of his weed, Therfore
it is written by Aristotle that when Cyrus had
overcome the Lydians that were a warlike nation &
devised to bringe them to a more peaceable lief he
changed their apperell & musick: and in steade
of their shorte warlike Coate Clothed them in
longe garmentes like weomen, and insteade of
there musicke appointed to them certeine lascivious
layes and loose giges, by which in shorte space their
myndes were soe mollified and abated that
they forgott their former feircenes & became moste
tender and effeminate, wherbie it appereth that
theare is not a litle in the garment to the
fashioninge of the mynde & Conditions But by
these which yowe haue discribed the fashions of
the Irishe weedes /.
Iren Noe all these which I haue Rehersed to yow
be not Irishe garmentes but Englishe For the quilted
leather Iack is olde Englishe for it was the proper
wede of the horseman as ye maie reade in
Chauucer where he discribeth Sir Thopas apperell
and Armour


and Armor when he went to fight against the Geant
which Checklaton is that kinde of gilden leather with which
they doe vse to embroder their Irishe Iackes and theare
likwise by all that discription ye maye see the very
fashion and manner of the Irishe horsemen moste lively
set fourthe in his longe hose his shooes of costlye
cordwayne his hacqueton & his •• haberion with all
the reste thervnto belonginge /
Eudox: I surelie thought that that manner hadd bene
kindlye Irishe for it is farre diffringe from that
wee haue nowe as alsoe all the furniture of his horse
his stronge brasse bitt his slydinge raynes his
shancke pillion without stirropps his manner of mountinge
his fashion of rydinge his charginge of his spere alofte
above hande the forme of his spere . /.
Iren: Noe sure they be native Englishe & brought in
by the Englishmen firste into Ireland neither is the
same Counted & vncomelie manner of Rydinge, for I haue
heard some great warriers saye, That in all the
services which they had seene abroade in forreyne
Countreis they never sawe a more comelie horseman
then the Irishman nor that Cometh on more bravelie
in his charge, neither is his manner of mountinge vnsemely
thoughe he lacke stirropps, but more readie then with
stirrops for in his gettinge vpp his horse is still
goeinge wherbie he gaineth waie, And therfore the
stirropp was called soe in scorne as it were a
stayer to gett vpp beinge deryved of the old Englishe
wourde sty which is to mount /.
Eudox: It semeth then that ye finde noe falte
with this manner of Rydinge whie then wold yowe
haue the quilted Iacke layde awaye . / .

Iren: I would not haue it laid awaie but the abuse therof
to be put awaye for beinge vsed to thende that it was
framed that is to be worne in warre vnder a
shirte of mayle it is allowable as also the shirte
of male & all his other furniture but to be worne
dailie at home and in townes & in civill places
it is a Rude habitt and most vncomely seeminge
like a players painted Cote
Eudox: But it is wourne likwise they saye of
Irishe ••• footemen howe doe yowe allowe of that
for I should thincke it verie unsemelye. /
Iren: Noe not as it is vsed in warre for yt is
then wourne likwise of a footeman vnder a
shirte of male the which footeman they Call a
Galloglasse, the which name dothe discouer him
to be also Auncient Englishe: For Gallogla
signifies an English servitor or yeoman, And
he beinge soe Armed in a longe shirte of mayle
downe to the Calue of his legge with a longe broad
•• axe in his hand was then Pedes grauis &
and was in steade of the armed footeman
that nowe weareth a Corslett then before the corslett
were vsed or all moste invented.
Eudox: Then him belike ye likewise allowe in your
streight reformation of olde Customes ./
Iren: Bothe him & the kerne also (whome only
I tooke to be the proper Irishe soldier can I allowe
soe that the vse of that habitt & custome of theirs
in the warres onlye, when they are ledd fourthe to
the service of their prince and not vsuall at home
and in civill places and besides doe laye asside the
evill & vilde vses which the Galloglasse & kerne doo vse
in their Comon trade of lief . / .


Eudox: what be those?
Iren: Marie those be the most loathely & barbarous
Condicions of anie people I thincke vnder heavene
for from the time that they enter into that Course
they doe vse all the beastlie behavior that maye be
They oppresse all men they spoile aswell the subiect
as the enemye they steale they are Cruell and
bloodie full of revendge & delightinge deadlye
execution licentious swerers & blasphemers Comon
Ravishers of weomen & murderers of Children /
Eudox: These be most villanous Condicions I marvell
then that they be even vsed or imployed or allmost suffred
to live what good can theare then be in them /.
Iren: Yet sure they are verie valiant & hardie
for the moste parte greate endewrers of colde labor
hunger and all hardines verie Active and stronge
of hande verie swifte of foote very vigilaunt &
Circumspect in their enterprises verie present
in perills verie great scorners of deathe /.
Eudox: Truelie by this that ye saye It semes that the
Irishman is a verie brave soldier /.
Iren: yea surelie in that Rude kinde of service he
beareth him self verie Couragiouslye but when he
cometh to experience of service abroade and is
put to a peace or a pike he maketh as wourthy
a soldier as anie nation he meteth with But let
vs I praie yowe turne againe to our discourse
of evill customes amongst the Irishe /
Eudox Me semes all this which yow speake of
Concerneth the Customes of the Irishe verie materially
for their vses in warre are of noe small importanc
to be Conscidered aswell to reforme those which are evill
as to confirme

as to confirme & contynue those which are good but
followe yowe your owne Course & showe what
other their Customes ye haue to disleik of . /
Iren Theare is amongeste the Irishe a Certeine kinde
of people Called Bardes which are to them in
steade of Poetes whose profession is to sett fourthe
the prayses & dispraises of menne in their poems
or rymes the which are hadd in soe highe regard
& estimation amongst them that none dare
displease them for feare to runne into reproche
thorough their offence & to be made infamous
in the mouthes of all men / for their verses are
taken vpp with a generall applause and vsuall
songe att all Feastes & meetinges by Certeine other
persons whose proper functions that is which alsoe receyve
for the same greate rewardes & reputation beside /.
Eudox: doe yow blame this in them which I woulde
otherwise haue thought to haue bene wourthie of
good accompt & rather to haue bene mainteined &
augmented amongst them then to haue bene
misliked For I haue redd that in all ages poetes
have bene hadd in speciall reputacion & that me
seemes not withowt greate Cause, for besides their
sweet invencions & most wittye layes they have
allwaies vsed to sett fourthe the praises of the
good & virtuous & to beate downe & disgrace the
badd & vicious, soe that manie brave younge
mindes haue oftentymes throughe the hearinge
of the praises & famous Eulogies of wourthie men
sunge & Reported vnto them bene stirred vpp to
affecte like Comendations & to strive vnto the like desartes.
Soe they that the Lacedemonians were more
excited to desier of honor with the excellent verses
of the Poete Tyrteus then with all the exhortacions
of their Capitaynes or Aucthoritie of theire
Rulers and Magisrates. / .


Iren: It is moste true that soche Potes as in their
wrightinge doe labor to better the mannors of men & throughe
the sweet bayte of their numbers to steale into the younge
spirittes a desier of honor & virtew are wourthie to be
hadd in great respect but these Irishe Bardes are for
the most parte of an other mynde & soe farre from
instructinge younge men in morall discipline that
they them selues doe more deserue to be sharpely
disciplied for they seldom vse to choose vnto them
selues the doenge of good men for the Arguementes
of their Poems but whome soeuer they finde to be
moste licentious of lief moste boulde & lawles in
his doenges most daungerous & desperate in all
partes of disobedience & rebellious disposition him
they sett vpp and glorifie in their Rymes
him they praise to the people & younger men
make an example to follow:
Eudox: I marveile what kinde of speches they
can fynde or what face they can put on to
praise soche Lewde persons as live soe lawlesslye
& licentiouslye vppon stealthes & spoyles as
moste of them doe, or howe can they thincke
that anie goode mynde will applaude or approve
the same . / .
Iren: There is none soe badd Eudox: but that shall
finde some to favor his doenges but soche licentious
partes as these tendinge for the moste parte to the
hurte of the Englishe or maintenanc of their owne
leude liberties they them selues beinge most desierous
therof doe moste allowe Besides these evill thinges
beinge deckt & subbourned with the gaye attyre
of goodlie wourdes maie easilie deceyve & Carrye
awaie the affeccion of a younge minde that is
not well stayed but desierous by some bould
adventure to make proof of himself for beinge
as they all be

(as they all be) broughte vpp ydley without awe
of Parentes without preceptes of maisters without
feare of offence & not beinge directed nor
imployed in anie Course of lief which maie Carry
them to virtue well easilie to be drawen to
followe soche as anie shall sette before them for
a younge mynde cane not reste and if he be
not still buysied in some goodnes he will finde
him self soche buisines as shall soone buisye
all about him in which if he shall finde anie
to praise him and to geive him encouragement
as those Bardes and Rymers doe for
a litle rewarde or a share of a stolen Cowe
then waxethe he most insolent & half
madd with the love of him self & his owne
lewde deedes and as for wourdes to sett Fourth
soche lewdnes it is not hard for them to geive
a goodlie glose & painted shewe thervnto
borrowed evene from the praises which are
proper vnto virtue it self, As for a moste
notorious theif and wicked owtlawe whiche
hadd lived all his lief tyme of spoyles and
Robberries one of their Bardes in his praise sayd
that he was none of those ydele milke sopps that
was brought vpp by the fyers syde but that
most of his daies he spent in Armes and
valiaunt enterprises, that he ded never eate
his meate before he hadd wonne it with his
sworde that he laie not slugginge all nighte in a
Cabin vnder his Mantle but vsed Comonlye
to kepe others wakinge to defende their lives and ded
lighte his Candle at the flames of their howses ./
To leade him


to leade him in the darknes that the daie was his nighte
and the nighte his daie that he loved not to lie longe
woyenge of wenches to yelde to him, but wheare he came
he toke by force the spoyle of other mens love & lefte
but lamentation to their lovers / that his musicke was
not the harpe nor layes of love but the cryes of people
and clashinge of Armoure and that finallye he died not
bewayled of • manie but made manie waile when he
died that derelie bought his deathe doe yowe not thincke
Eudoxus that manie of these prases might be applied
to men of best desart yet are they all yeilded to amoste
notable Traytor and amongst ••• some of the Irishe
not finallie accompted of for the songe when it
was firste made & sunge vnto a person of higher
degree theare was bought as their manner is Fortye
Crownes . / .
Eudox: And well wourthie sure But tell me I
praye yowe have they anie art in their Compositions
or be they anie thinge wittye or well favoured as Poems
should be /.
Iren: Yea truelie I haue caused diuerse of them to be
translated vnto me that I might vnderstande
them & surelie they favored of sweete witt and
good invention, but skilled not of the goodlie ornamentes
of Poetrye; yet were they sprinckled with some
pretie flowers of their owne naturall devise which
haue good grace and Comelinesse vnto them
The which it is greate pittye to see soe abused
to the gracinge of wickednesse and vice which could
with good vsage serve to bewtifie and adorne vertue
This evill custome therfore needeth reformacion
And nowe next after the Irishe kerne me semes
the Irishe horsboyes would come well in ordre the
vse of which thoughe necessitie (as tymes nowe be)
doe enforce, yet in the thoroughe reformacion of that
Realme they shoulde cut of for the Cause whye
they must nowe be permitted is the want of convenient
Innes for lodginge of traveillors on horsbacke and of

hostlers to lende their horses by the waye But
when thinges shalbe reducid to a better passe
this needeth speciallie to be reformed for out
of the frye of these rakehellye horseboyes
growinge vpp in Knauery & villanye are
there kerne contynuallye supplied & mainteyned
for havinge beene brought vpp an ydle horsboyes
he will never after fall to labor but is only
made fitt for the halter, And these alsoe (the
which is one fowle oversight) are for the most
part bredd vpp amongst Englishmen and
souldiers of whome learninge to shoote in a
peice and beinge made acquainted withall
the trades of the Englishe they are afterwardes
when they become kerne made more fytte to
Cutt their throtes, next to this there is an
other muche like but muche more lewde and
dishonest and that is there Carrowes, which
are a kinde of people that wander vpp and
downe gentlemens howses livinge onlye vppon
Cardes & dice, they which thoughe they have
litle or nothinge of their owne, yet will thei
plaie for muche money, which if they wynne
they waste most lightlie, and if they loose
they paye as slenderlye but make recompence
with one stealthe or an other: Whose onlye
harte is not that they them selues are
ydle losels, but that thoroughe gameinge
they drawe others to like lewdnesse & ydlenes
And to these maie be added an other sorte of
leike looser felloes which doe passe vpp & downe
amongst gentlemen by the name of Iesters,
but are indeed notable Rogues & partakers
not onlye of manie stealthes by settinge forthe
other mens goodes to be stolen but also prevy
to manie traytors practises & comon carriers
of newes.


of newes: with desier wherof yow would wunder howe moche
the Irishe are fledd for they vse Comonly to sende
vpp & downe to knowe newes and if anie meete
with an other his seconde wourde what newes, In
soe muche that hereof is toulde a pretye ieste
of a Frenchman whoe havinge bene sometyme
in Ireland where he marked theare greate
inquiery for newes, and metinge afterwardes in
Fraunce an Irishman whoe he knewe in
Ireland firste saluted him and afterwardes thus
merrilie, Sir I praye yowe (quoth he) tell me of
Curtesye, haue ye herde yet anie thinge of
the newes, that ye soe muche inquirid for in your Cuntrye
Eudox: This argueth sure in them a great desier
of Innovacion, and therfore these occasions which
nourrishe the same are to be taken awaye as
namelye those Iesters Carrowes Monashite and
all soche straglers for whome me seemes the
shorte riddance of a marshall were meeter then
anie ordinance or prohibition to restrayne them
Therfore I praye yow leave all this rablement
of soche loose Ronnagates & passe to some other
Customes /.
Iren: There is a great vse amongst the Irishe
to make greate assemblies togither vppon a
Rathe or hill, there to parley (as they saye) about
matters matters and wronges betwene Towneshipp
& Towneshipp or on private person or an other but
well I wote and trewe it •• hath bene oftentymes
approved that in these meetinges manie mischiefes
hathe bothe bene practised & wrought: For to them
doe Comonlie resorte all the scume of loose people
where they maie freelie meet & conferre of what
they liste which ells they could not doe withowte
suspition or knowledge of others, Beside these

parlies I haue diuerse times knowne that manie
Englishmen & other good Irishe subiectes haue
bene villanouslye murdered by movinge one
quarrell or an other amongst them, For
the Irishe never Come to those Rathes but
Armed whither on horse or foote which the
English nothinge suspectinge are the comonly
taken at avantage like shepe in a pinfould.
Eudox: It maie be Iren: that abuse maie
be in these meetinges but these rownd hills
and square ••• bawnes which yow see soe
stronglie trenched & throwen vpp we (
they saye at firste ordeyned for the same
purpose that people might assemble them
selues theron, And therfore Aunciently thei
were called Folkmotes this is a place for
people to moote or talke of anie thinge
that Concerneth anie diffrence betwene
parties & Towneshipps which semeth yett
to me verie requisyte /.
Iren: Ye saie verie trewe Eudox: The
firste makinge of these highe hills was
at firste indeed ••• to verie good purpose
for people to mete but howe ever the tymes
when they were firste made might well serve
to good occasions as perhaps they ded then
in England, yet thinges beinge since
altered and nowe Ireland muche diffringe
from that state of England the goode vse
that their was of them is nowe turned to
abuse. For those hills ye speake were (as
ye maie gather by readinge) appointed
for two speciall vses & builte by two seuerall
nations, The one is those which yowe Call
Folkimotes the which were built by the saxons/.
•••••••• •• as the word


as the worde bewrayeth: for it signifieth in Saxon, meting
of folke or people and these are for the moste part
in forme • fower square well entrenched for the metinge
of that The others that are Rounde were caste
vpp by the danes as the name of them dothe betoken:
for they are called Denerathes that is hills of the Danes
the which were by them devised not for parlies & treaties
but appointed as fortes for them to gather vnto in
troublous tymes when anie tumult arose, for the
Danes beinge but a fewe in Comparison of the Saxons
vsed this for their safetie They made these small round
hills soe stronglie fenced in euerye quarter of the hundred
to thende that if in the nighte or anie other tyme anie
troublous Crye or vprore should happen, they might
repare withall speed vnto their owne fort which was
appointed for their quarter & there remayne safe
till they Could assemble them selues in greater
strengthe, For they were made soe stronge with one
small entrance that whoesoeuer came thither firste
were he one or two or like fewe, he or they might
there Rest safe and defende them selues against many
till more succoure came vnto them and when they
were gathered to a sufficient nombre, they marched
to the next fort and soe forward till they met
with the perill or knewe the occasion therof. But
besides these two sortes of hills there were aunciently
diuerse others, For some were raised when there
hadd bene a great battall fought as a memorye
or trophe therof, Others as monimentes of buriall of
the Carcasses of all those that were slayne in anie
feild vppon whome they ded throwe vpp soche round
mountes as memorialls for them & some tymes ded cast
vpp great heapes of stones as ye maie reade in
many places of the scripture & other whiles they
ded throwe vpp manie Round heapes of erthe
in a Circle

in a Circle like a garland or pitche manie longe stones
on ende in Compasse Everie of which they saie betokened
some wourthie person of note there slayne and buryed
For this was their Auncient Custome before Christianity
came in amongest them that Church yardes were inclosed:
Eudox: ye haue verie well declared the originall
of these mountes and great stones encompassed which
some vainelie terme the oulde Geantes Trivettes &
thincke that those huge stones woulde not ells be
broughte into ordre or reared vpp without the strengthe
of Geantes: and others as vainelie thincke that they
were neve placed theare by mans hand or Arte
but onle remayned theare soe since the begyninge
and ••••• were afterwardes discouered by the deluge
and laid open as they by the washinge of the
waters or other like casuallitye but lett them
dreame theare owne ymaginations to please them
selues: But ye haue satisfied me muche better both
by that I see some confirmation therof in the
holye writt but alsoe remembre that I have
redd in manie historyes and Cronicles the like
Cronicles & mountes & stones oftentymes mencioned
as .
Iren: Theare be manie greate Aucthorities I
assuer yowe to prove the same but as for these
meetinges on hills wherof wee were speakinge
it is verie inconvenient that anie soche should
be permitted speciallie in a people soe evill
mynded as they nowe be & diuerslye shewe
them selues . /
Eudox: But yet it is verie needfull me seemes
for manie other purposes as for the Cuntrye to
gather togither when theare is anie ymposition
to be laid vppon them the which they then all agree
att soche meetinges to Cutt & devyde vpon them
selues accordinge to their houldinges & habillities
so as if


soe as if at those assembleis there be anie officers as cunstables
Bayliffes or soche like amongst them there can be noe perill
nor doubt of soche badd practises:
Iren: Nevertheles daungerous are soche assemblies
whither for Cesse or ought ells the Cunstables & officers
beinge also of the Irishe and if anie happen theare to
be of the Englishe evene to them they maie prove perillus.
Therfore for avoydinge of all soche evill occasions they
were best to be abollished :
Eudox: But what is that which ye call Cesse, it •• is
a wourd sure vnvsed amongst vs here Therfore I praye
yowe expounde the same:
Iren: Cesse is none other but that which your self called
imposicion, but it is in a kinde vnacquainted perhaps vnto
yowe: For theare are Cesses of sondrye sortes one is the
Cessinge of souldiers vppon the Country for Ireland beinge
a Countrye of warre (as it is handled & allwaies full
of souldiers, they which haue the government whither they
finde it the moste ease to the Quene Maiesties Purse or the
most redie meanes at hande for victellinge of the souldiers
or that necessitye forceth them therunto, doe scatter the
Armie abroad the Country & place them to take
their victualls of them att suche vacant tymes as
they lie not in Campe nor are otherwise imployed in
service Another kinde of Cesse is the imposinge of
provision for the gouerners houskepeinge which thoughe yt
be most necessarye & be alsoe for avoydinge of all
the evills formerlie therin vsed latelie brought to a
Composition yet is it not without great inconveniences
noe lesse then here in England or rather muche more
The like Cesse is alsoe charged vppon the Countrye
sometyme for victellinge of the souldiers when they lye
in garrison at soche times as there is none remayninge
in the Quenes store, or that the same cannot conveniently
be conveyed to their place of Garrisoninge, but these two
are not easie to be redressed when necessitie therunto

Compelleth: but as for the former as it is not necessary
soe it is most hurtfull & offensive to the pore
Countrye, & nothinge convenient to the souldier him self
whoe duringe his lieinge att Cesse vsethe all kinde of
outragious disorder & villenye bothe towardes the pore men
which victall & lodge them & also to all the rest of the
Countrye about them, whome they abuse oppresse spoyle
& afflicte by all the meanes they can most invent / For
they will not only not contente them selues with sutche victells
as their hostes doe nor yet as the place perhaps will afford
but they will have other meat provided for them, and aqua
sent for, yea & money besides laide at his trencher
which if he want then about the house he walkethe
with the wretched pore man & his sillye wief whoe
are gladd to purchase their peace with anie thinge
by which vile manner of abuse the Countrye people
ye & the verie Englishe which dwell abroade & see
& sometymes feile these outrages growe into great
detestacion of the souldier & therbie into hatred of the
verie governement which draweth vppon them soche
Evill• Customes which wee haue to reprove in Ireland
Eudox: Truelie this is one not the leaste, & thoughe
the persons by whome it is vsed be of better note then
the former Rogishe sorte which ye reckoned yet the fault
me semes is noe lesse wourthie of a Marshall.
Iren: That were a harde Course Eudox: to redresse
euerye abuse by a marshall It would seme to yowe
verie evill surgerye to Cutt of euerie vnsound or sicke
parte of the bodie which beinge by other due meanes
recured might afterwardes doe verie good service vnto
the bodie againe and happelie helpe to save that
whole, Therfore I thincke better that some goode
salue for redresse of this evill be sought forthe then
the least parte suffred to perishe, But hereof wee
have to speake in an other place nowe we will
proceed to other leike defectes amongst which theare
is one


is one generall inconvenience which raigneth almost throughe
all Ireland and that is of the Lordes of ••• Land &
freeholders doe not their vse to sett oute their landes in
fearme or for tearme of yeris to their tenantes but
onlye from yere to yere & some duringe pleasuers
neither indeed will the Irishe Tenat or husbondman
otherwise take his land then soe longe as he liste him
self The reason hereof in the Tenat is for that the
land••••••• lordes theare vse moste shamefullye to
Racke their Tenauntes layeinge vppon him Coynie
& liuerye at pleasuer & exactinge of him besides
his covenant what he please, soe that the pore
husbondman either dare not bynde him self for
Longer terme or that he thincketh by his contynuall
libertie of change to kepe his landlord the rather
in awe from wronginge him, And the reason whye
the Landlord will noe longer Covenant with him is
for that he daylie looketh after Chaunge and
alteracion & hovereth in expectation of newe worldes
Eudox: But what evill cometh herebye to the Comon
welthe or what reason is yt that anie landlord
should not sett nor anie tenant take his land as him
self liste / .
Iren: Marie the evill which Cometh therbie is greate for
by this meane both the landlord thincketh that he
hathe his Tenant more att Comandment to followe
him into what Accon soever he shall enter & also
the Tenant beinge lefte att his libertie is fitt for euery
variable occasion of Change that shalbe offred by time
and soe muche also the more redye & willinge is he
to runne therunto, for that he hathe noe soche state in
anie his holdinge noe soche buildinge vppon anie
ferme noe soche Costes imployed in fencinge or husbandry
the same

the same as might withholde him from anie soche wilfull
Course as his landlord or his owne lewde disposition
maie carrie him into all which he hathe forborne and
spared soe muche expense for that he hadd noe former
estate in his tenate but was only a Tenante at will
or litle more & soe at will maie leave yt, And this
inconvenience maie be reason enoughe to grounde anie
ordinanc for the goode of a comon wealthe againste the
private •••• behoof or will of anie landlord that shall
refuse to graunte anie soche tenure or Estate vnto his
Tenat as maie tende to the good of the whole Realme /.
Eudox: In dede me semes it is a ••••• great wilfulnes
in anie soche landlord to refuse to make anie longer
fermes vnto their tenates as maie besides the generall good
of the Realme be also greatlie for their owne profitt
& avayle, For what reasonable man will not
thincke that the tenent shalbe made muche better for
the lordes behoof, yf the Tenat maye by soche meanes
be drawne to builde him self some handesom habitacion
theron to ditche & inclosse his grounde & to manur
& husbounde yt as good Farmers vse, For when his
tenant terme shalbe expired it will in the Renuenge of
his •••• lease yeilde him bothe a good fine & alsoe a better
Rent, And alsoe it shalbe for the good of the Tenate
likwise whoe by soche buildinges & Inclosures shall
receyve manie benefyttes Firste by the handsomenes
of •his house he shall take great comforte of his ••••
lief more safe dwellinge and delight to kepe
his said house neate & cleanely, which nowe beinge (as
they Comonlye are) rather Swynsteades then
howses, is the Cheiffest cause of his soe beastlye
manner of lief And salvage Condicion lyinge &
livinge togither with his beaste in one howse in one
rowne, and in one bedd that is the Cleane straw
or rather the fowle dungehill, And to all these
other Comodities he shall in short tyme finde a
greater added that is his owne wealth & riches


encreased & wrongfullie enlarged by kepeing his Cattell in inclosui[r]
whear they shall allwaies haue freshe pasture that nowe is all
trampled and overcome warme lewre that nowe leth open
to all weather, safe beinge that nowe are continually filched
and stolen.
Iren: Yow haue well Eudox: accompted the Comodities of
this one good ordinance, amongst which this that yowe
named laste it not the least for all the other
beinge most beneficiall bothe to the landlord & Tenant
this Cheifflie redoundeth to the goode of the whole comen
wealthe to haue the land thus inclosed & well fenced:
For it is bothe a principall Barre & impeachement vnto
Theives from steallinge of Cattell in the night and
alsoe a gawle againste all Rebells and outlawes that
shall rise vpp in anie numbers against that gouernment
For the theif shall haue muche adoe firste to bringe
forthe & afterwardes to drive his stolen praye but
thoroughe the Comon highe wayes where he shall soone
be discried & met withall & the Rebell or open enemy
if anie soche shall happen ether at home or from
abroade shall easilye be founde when he Cometh forthe
& alsoe be well encountered withall by a fewe in soe
streight passages & stronge enclosuers, This therfore
when wee come to the reforminge of all these former
evill customes is needfullie to be remembred, But nowe
by this time mee seemes that I haue well ronne
thoroughe the evill abuses which I haue observed in
Ireland, Neverthelesse I well wote that manie more
there be, and infinitely manie more in the private
abuses of men but those that are most generall, and tendinge
to the hurte of the Comon weale as they haue come to
my Remembrance I haue as breifflie as I coulde
rehersed vnto yowe, And therfore nowe I thincke beste that
wee passe vnto or thirde parte in which wee noted
inconvenience that is in Religion / .
Eudox: Surelie ye haue verie well handled these two
former, And if yow shall aswell goe throughe the third
likwise, ye shall merritt a verie good •••• meede . /.

Iren: Litle haue I to saye of Religion bothe bicause •• the
partes therof be not manie it self beinge but one, and
my self have not bene muche conversant in that Calling
but as lightlie passinge by I haue sene or harde,
Therfore the faulte which I finde in religion is but
one but the same vniuersall throughe all that Cuntry
that is that they are all Papistes by their profession
but in the same soe blindelie & soe brutishely
informed for the moste parte, as that ye ••••• would rather
thincke them Atheists or infidills but not one amongst
an hundred knoweth anie grownde of Religion
anie Article of his Faithe but can perhaps saye
his Pater noster or his Ave Marie without anie
knowledge or vnderstandinge what one wourd
therof meaneth / .
Eudox: This is truelie a most pittifull hearinge
that soe manie sowles should fall into the divills
Iawes at once and lacke the blessed comfort
of the sweet Gospell & Christes dere passion
Aye me howe cometh it to passe that beinge
people as they are tradinge with soe manie nacions
& frequented of soe manie, yet they haue not
tasted anie parte of those happie Ioyes, nor once
bene lightned with the morninge starre of truthe
but lie weltringe in soche spiritvall darknesse
hard by hell mouthe evene redie to fall in yf
god happelie helpe not . / .
Iren: The generall faulte commeth not of anie late
abuse either in the people or their preistes whoe
can teache noe better then they knowe nor shewe
noe more light then they have sene but in the first
Institution & plantinge of Religion in all that
Realme which was (as I reade) in the time of Pope
Celestine whoe as it is written) ded firste sende over
thither Palladius whoe theare deceassing he afterwardes
sent over St Patrick beinge by nation a Britton whoe
Converted the


Converted the people beinge then infidells from Paganisme
and Christned them, In which popes time & longe before
it is Certeine that Religion was generallie Corrupted with
their popishe trumperie Therfore what other Coulde
they learne then soche trashe as was taught them
and drincke of that Cupp of fornication with which the
purple harlott hadd then made all nations druncken :/
Eudox: what doe yowe then blame and finde faulte with
soe good an •••• Acte in that good Pope, as the Reduceinge
of soche a greate people to Christendome bringinge soe
manie soules vnto Criste, yf that were ill what is
Iren: I doe not blame the Christeninge of them for to be
sealled with the marke of the lambe by what hand soeuer
it be done Rightlie I houlde it a goode & gracious
wourke/ for the generall profession which they then take
vppon them of the Crosse & faithe in Criste I nothinge doubte but
but thoroughe the powerfull grace of that mightie savior will
worke saluation in manie of them But nevertheles since thei
druncke not from the pure springe of lief but onlie tasted
of soche troubled waters as were broughte vnto them
the Drugges therof haue bredd great Contagion in their
soules, the which dailie increasinge and beinge still
more augmented with their owne leude lyves and
filthie conversation hathe nowe bredd in them this generall
disease that cannot but onlye with verie stronge
purgations be clensed & carried awaye . / .
Eudox: Then for this defect ye finde noe fault with
the people them selues nor with the Priestes which
take the charge of soules but with the first ordinance
& institution therof. /
Iren: Not soe Eudox: for the sinne or ignorance of the
Priestes shall not excuse the people nor the Aucthoritye
of their great Pastors Peeters successors shall not
excuse the priest but they all shall die in theire
synnes for

synnes for they haue all erred and gone owte of
the waye togeather ./.
Eudox: But if this ignorance of the people be suche
a burden vnto the Pope is it not a like blotte to them
that nowe houlde that place in that which nowe are
in the lighte them selues suffer a people vnder their
charge to wallowe in soche deadlie darkenesse, For
I doe not see that the faulte is changed but the
faultes maistar /.
Iren: That which ye blame Eudox: is not I suppose
anie faulte of will in these godlie Fathers which
have charge therof nor anie defecte of zeale for
reformacion hereof but the inconvenience of the
tyme & troublous occasions wherewith that wretched
Realme hathe bene contynuallie turmoyled. For
instruccion in religion needeth quiete tymes and
ere we seeke to settle a sounde discipline in Cleargie
wee must purchase peace vnto the layitie. For it
is ill tyme to preache amongst •••• swordes and
most hard or rather impossible it is to perswade a good
oppinion in the mindes of men for matters of religion
doubtfull which haue a doubtlesse evill opinion of our
selues for ere a newe be broughte in the olde must
be removed . / .
Eudox: Then belike it is meet that some fitter time
be attended that god sende peace & quietnes there in
civile matters before it be attempted in Ecclesiasticall:
I woulde rather haue thoughte that as it is said
Correccion shoulde begine at the house of god and
that the care of the sowle should haue bene preferred
before the Care of the bodie . / .
Iren: moste trewe Eudox: the care of the sowle
& sowle matters is to be preferred before the care of
the bodie & conscideration of the wourthines bothe but
not in the time of reformation: For if yowe should
knowe a wicked person daungerouslye sicke havinge
nowe bothe sowle & bodie sore diseased yet bothe


Recouerable woulde ye not thincke it ill advizement to
bringe the Preacher before the Phisician, for if his bodie
were neglected it is like that his languishinge soule beinge
disquieted by his deseasefull bodie woulde vtterlie refuse
and loathe all spirituall comforte But if his bodie were
firste recured & brought to good frame should there not
then befounde beste tyme to •••••• recuer his soule also:
soe it is in the state of a Realme, Therfore as I said yt
is expedient firste to settle suche a Course of gouerment
theare as therbie bothe civile disorders & alsoe ecclesiastical
abuses maie be reformed & amended whereto needeth not
anie soche greate distance of tymes as ye suppose I
requier but one Iointe resolucion for bothe that eache
might second & confirme the other . / .
Eudox: That wee shall see when wee come therunto In
the meane tyme I •••••••• conceyve thus muche as
yowe haue deliuered towchinge the generall faulte which
ye suppose in Religion to weet that it is popishe, But
doe ye fin[de] noe particcular abuses therin nor in the
ministers therof . / .
Iren: Yes verilye for what euer disorders yowe see in the
Churche of England ye maie finde thear & manie
more namelie grosse Symony gredie Covetuousnes
fleshlie incontinence carelesse slouthe generallie all
disordred lief in the comon cleargiemen, and besides
all these they haue their owne peculier enormities:
for all the Irishe ••• ••••••• priestes which nowe enioye
the churche liuinges there are in manner mere layemen
savinge that they haue taken holye orders but otherwise
they doe leike layemen goe like layemen live like
laye men followe all kinde of husbandrye and other
wordlie affaiers as the Comon Irishe Layemen doe
They neither reade scriptures nor preache to the people
nor minister the sacrament of Comunion but the baptisme
they doe for they Cristen yet after the popishe fashion
& with the popishe latine ministration Onlye they
take the

take the tythes and offringes & gather what fruites
ells they maie of their livinges the which they conuert
as badlie & some of them they saie paie as due
tributes & shares of their livinges to their byshopps
(I speake of those which are Irishe) as they Receive
them duelye / .
Eudox: But is •• that suffred amongst them it is
wounder but that the gouerners redresse soche shame
full abuses:
Iren: Howe can they since they knowe them not
for the Irishe Bisshopps haue their clergies in
soche awe & subieccion vnder them that they dare
not Complaine of them soe as they maye doe
to them what they please: For they knowinge
their owne vnwourthines & incapacitie and
that they are therfore still removable att ther
Bishopps will yeild what pleaseth him & he
taketh what pleaseth him, yea & some of them
whose dioces are in remote partes somewhate out
of the wourldes eye doe not at all bestowe
the benefices which are in their owne donation
vppon anie but kepe them in their owne handes
& sett their owne servauntes & horseboyes to take
vpp the tithes & fruites of them with which some
of them purchase great Landes & builde fayer
Castles vppon the same, of which abuse if anie
question be moved they have a verie semely
color of excuse that they haue noe wourthie
ministers to bestowe them vppon but kepe them
soe vnbestowed for anie soche sufficient person
as anie shall bringe vnto them .
Eudox: But is theare noe Lawe nor ordinance
to meet with this mischeif nor hath it
never before bene looked into / .


Iren: yes it semes it hathe for there is a statute ther
enacted in Ireland which semes to have bene grounded
vppon a good meaninge that whatsoeuer Englishman beinge of
good conversation & sufficiencye shalbe brought vnto
anie of those Bisshopes & nominated vnto anie livinge
within their diocesse that is presentlye voyde that he
shall without contradiccion be admitted therunto before
anie Irishe:
Eudox: This is surelie a verie good Lawe & well provided
for this evill wherof ye spoke but whie is not the same
Iren: I thincke it is well observed & that none of
the Bisshopps transgresseth the same but yett
it wourketh noe reformation hereof for manie
defectes, Firste their are noe soche sufficiente
Englishe ministers sent over as might be presented
to anie Bishopp for anie livinge but the most parte of
soche Englishe as come over thither of them selues
are either vnlearned or men of some bad note
for which they haue forsaken England, soe as the Bishop
to whome they shalbe presented maye iustlye reiect
them as incapable & insufficient, secondlye the
Bishop him self is perhaps an Irishman who beinge
made iudge by that lawe of the sufficiencye of the
minister maie at his owne will disleike of the ••••••••
Englishman as vnwourthie in his opinion & admitt
of an other Irishe whome he shall thincke more for
his owne turne, And if he shall at the instance of
anie Englishman of Countenance theare whome he
will not displease accept of anie soche Englishe
minister as shalbe tendered vnto him yet he will
vnder carrie suche an hard hand ouer him or by his
offices wringe him soe sore that he will soone make
him wearye of his pore livinge lastlye the benifices
them selues are soe meane & of soe small profitt in
those Irishe Countryes thoroughe the ill husbondrye
of the Irishe people which Inhabit them that they will not
yeild anie Competent maintenanc for anie honest minister
to live on, scarslye to buye him a gowne, and were all
this redressed as happelie it might be what good shall
anie soche Inglish minister doe amongest them by

Preachinge or teachinge which either cannot vnderstand him
or will not heare him or what comforte of lief he have
wheare his Parrishyoners are soe insociable soe intractable
soe ill affected to him as they vsuallye be to all the Inglishe
& finallye howe dare allmost anye minister that are
peacefull civill men Comitt his safetye into the handes
of soche neighbours as the bouldest Capteines dare
scarselye dwell bye
Eudox: Litle good then I see is by the statute wroughte
howe euer well entended but the reformation therof must
growe higher & be brought from a stronger ordinanc then
the comandment or pennaltie of a lawe which none dare
enforme or Complaine of when it is broken, but have ye
anie more of these abuses in the Clergie / .
Iren: I Could perhaps reckon more but I perceive my
speche to growe to longe & these maie suffice to
Iudge of the generall disorders which Raigne amongst
them, As for the particculars they are to manie to be
reckoned, for the Clergie theare (exceptinge some
fewe grave Fathers which are in highe place aboute
the state & some fewe others which are latelie planted
in their newe Colledge are generallye badd licentious &
most disordred / .
Eudox: ye haue then as I suppose gone throughe
those three first partes which ye proposed vnto your
self to weete the inconveniences which ye observed
in the Lawes in the Customes & in the Religion of
that Land the which me seemes ye haue soe
throughlye towched, as that nothinge more remayneth
to be spoken •• therof,
Iren: not soe throughlye as ye suppose that
nothinge more can remayne but soe generallye as
I purposed that is to laye open the generall evills
of that Realme which doe hinder the good reformacion


therof For to accompt the particcular faultes of private
men shoulde be a wourke to infinite yet some theare be of
that nature, that thoughe they be in private men, yett
their evill Reachest to a generall hurt as the extorcion
of shreifes subshreifes and there bayliffes the Corrupcion
of victellors Cessours & purveyors, the disorder of
Senescalls Capteines & their souldiers & manie soche
like as I will only name here, that their reformacion
maye be mynded in place where it most concerneth;
But theare is one verie fowle abuse which by the
waye I maye not omitt and that is in Capteines
whoe not withstandinge thoughe that they are specially
imployed to make peace throughe stronge execution
of warre, yett they doe soe dandle their doenges and
dallye in the service to them Comitted as if they wold
not have the enemye subdued or vtterlye beaten
downe for feare lest afterward they should need
imployement & soe be discharged of paye for which
Cause some of them which are laid in garrison
doe soe handle the matter that they will doe noe
greate hurte to the enemyes, yet for coullour
sake some men they will kill evene half with
consent of the enemye beinge persons either of
Base regard or enemyes to the enemye, whose
heades ofte tymes they sende into the governers for
Comendation of their great indevoure tellinge howe
waightie a service they have performed by cuttinge
of soche & soche daungerous Rebells . / .
Eudox: Truelye this is a pretie mockerye
and not to be permitted by the governers

Iren: yea but howe can the governers knowe redely
what persons those were & what the purpose of
their killinge was, yea & what will yowe saye
if the Capteines doe iustifie this their Course by
ensample of some of their governers, who (vnde
Benedicite I doe tell it vnto yow) doe practise the
like sleightes in their govermentes. /
Eudox. Is it possible take heed what yow saye Iren:
Iren To yowe onlye Eudox I doe tell it and
that evene with greater hartes greif & inwarde
trouble of mynde to see her Maiestie soe muche
abused by some whome they put in speciall
trust of those great affayers / of which some
beinge martiall men will not doe allwaies what
they maye for quietinge of thinges but will rather
wincke att some faultes & suffer them vnpunnished
least they havinge put all thinges in that
assurance of peace that they might be, should
seeme afterwardes not to be needed nor contynued in
their goverment with soe great charge of her Maiestie
And therfore they doe Cunninglye Carrye that
Course of gouerment & from one hand to an other
doe bandye the service like a Tennys Ball
which they will never streike quiet awaye for
feare least afterwardes they should want sport:
Eudox: yowe speake of vnder Magistrates Irenius
or of principall Governors.
Iren: I doe speake of particculars but the
trueth maye be founde out by tryall & reasonable
insighte into some of there doenges And if
I should said there is some blame hereof in
some of the principall Governors I thincke I
might also


might alsoe showe some Reasonable proof of my
speche For by that which both I & manie have
observed the like might be gathered As for ensample
some of them seinge the ende of their goverment to
drawe nighe, and some mischeif or troublous practise
growinge vpp which afterwardes might wourke troble
to the next succeedinge Governor will not attempt
the redresse or Cuttinge of therof either for feare
they should leave the Realme vnquiet at thende
of their government or that the next which Cometh
should receyve the same too quiet, and soe happely
winne more praise therof then they before, And
therfore they will not (as I said) seeke at all
to represse that evill, but will either by graunting
proteccion for a tyme or holdinge some emparlaunce
with the Rebell or by tratye of Comissioners or
other like devizes onlye smoother & kepe downe the
flame of the mischeif soe as it maye not breake
out in their tyme of goverment what comes after
wardes, they Care not or rather wishe the wourse
This Course hathe bene noted in some governors. / .
Eudox: Surelie Iren: This if it were true
should be wourthie of an heavie iudgment, But it
is hardly to be thought that anye governor
would soe muche either envye the good of that
Realme which is put into his hande or defraude
her Maiestie whoe trusteth him soe muche or maligne
his successors which shall •••••••• possesse his place as to
suffer an evill to growe vpp which he mighte
tymelie haue kept vnder or perhaps to nourishe
it with colloured Countenances or soche sinister
Iren: I doe not Certeinlye avouche soe muche
Eudox: but the sequele of thinges dothe in a manner prove
and plainlye

and plainlie speake soe muche that the Governors
vsuallie are invious one of an others great glorye:
which if they woulde seeke to excell by better governinge
it shoulde be a moste laudable emulation but thei
doe quite otherwise, For this (as ye maye mark)
is the Comon ordre of them, that whoe comethe
next in place will not followe that Course of
goverment howe Ever good his predecessor hilde either
for disdayne of him self or doubt to haue his
doenges drowned in an other mans praise, but
will straighte take awaye quite Contrarye to the
former, as if the former thought by kepenge vnder
the Irishe to refourme them, the next by
discontynuenge the Englishe will carye favor
with the Irishe & soe make the goverment seme
plausible, as havinge all the Irishe at his comand
But he that comes next after will perhaps followe
neither the one nor the other, but will dandle the
one & the other in soche sorte as he will sucke sweet
out of them bothe and leave bitternesse to the
pore Land, which if he that Comes after shall
seeke to redresse he shall perhaps finde soche
Crosses as he shall hardly be able to beare or
to doe anie good that might wourke the disgrace
of his predecessor Ensamples hereof ye maye see
in the governors of late tyme sufficientlye and
in others of former tymes more manifestlye, when
the goverment of that Realme was Comitted
sometymes to the Geraldines, As when they
house of yorke helde the Crowne of England
sometymes to the Butlers, as when the house
of Lancaster gott the same, And otherwhiles
when an Englishe governor was appointed he
perhaps founde enemyes of bothe, & this is the
wretchednes of that fatall kingdome which I
thincke therfore


thincke therfore was in oulde tyme not Called amisse
Banno or Sacra Insula takinge sacra for accursed:
Eudox: I am sorie to heare soe muche as ye
reporte & nowe beginne to conceyve some what
more of the Cause of her contynuall wretchednes
then heretofore I have founde & wishe that this
inconvenience were well looked into, For sure me
semes it is more weightie then all the Former
more hardlie to be redressed in the governor then
the gorverned as a malladie in a vitall parte is
more incureable then in an externall . .
Iren: ye saie verie true but nowe that we have
thus ended all the abuses and inconveniences of that
government which was ore firste parte it followeth nexte
that we passe vnto the second part which was of
the meanes to cure & redresse the same which wee
must labor to reduce to the firste begyninge therof
Eudox: Righte soe Iren: for by that which I haue
noted in all this your discourse ye suppose that
the whole ordinance & institution of that Realmes
Goverment was bothe at firste when yt was placed
evill plotted and alsoe sithens throughe other
oversighte ronne more out of square to that
disorder which it is nowe evene vnto like as two
indirect lynes the further they are drawen
out the further they goe assunder. / .
Iren: I doe soe Eudox: and as ye saie soe thincke
that the longer that goverment thus contynueth
in the wourse case will that Realme be, For
it is all in vaine that they nowe strive & indevour
by fayer meanes and peaceable plottes to redresse
the same without firste removinge all those
inconveniences & newe framenge as it were in the
forge all that is worne out of fashion, for all other
meanes wilbe but loste labor by patchinge vpp
One hole

One hole to make manie, For the Irishe doe strongly
hate & abhorre all reformation & subieccion to the
Englishe by Reason that havinge bene once
subdewed by them they were thruste out of all
their possessions Soe as nowe they feare that if
they were againe brought vnder they shoulde
leikwise be expelled out of all which is the Cause
that they hate the Englishe goverment accordinge to
the sayeinge of Quem metuunt oderunt therfore
the reformation must nowe be with strengthe of
a greater power / .
Eudox: But me thinckes that might bee by
makinge of good Lawes & establyshinge of newe
statutes with sharpe pennalties & punishmentes
for amendinge of all that is presentlye Amisse
and not as ye suppose to beginne all as it were
a newe & alter the whole forme of the goverment
which howe daungerous a thinge it is to attempt
yow your self must needes confesse & they which have
the meanaginge of the Realmes whose pollicye
cannot without greate Cause feare & refrayne
For all innovacion is perillus in somuche as thoughe
it be meant for the better, yet soe manie accidentes
& fearefull eventes maie Come betwene, as that it
maye hazzard the losse of the whole /.
Iren verie true Eudox:, all chaunge is to be shonned
where the affayers stand in soche state as that they
maye Contynewe in quietnesse or be assured att
all to abide as they are but that in the Realme
of Ireland wee see muche otherwise: for everye daye
wee perceive the troubles growinge more vppon
vs & one evill growinge on an other insoemuche
as their is noe part nowe sounde or ascertented
but all haue their evills vpright waytinge when
the watchworde shall come that they should all
arise generally


arise generally into Rebellion and Caste awaie the English
subieccion To which there nowe litle wanteth for I
thincke the worde be allreadie geivene & there wanteth
nothinge but opportunitye which truely is the deathe
of one noble person whoe beinge him self most steadfast
to his soueraigne Quene his Country coastinge vppon
the southe sea stoppethe the mighte of all that evill which
is looked for & houldeth in all those which are att his
backe with the terror of his greatnes and the assurance
of his immoveable loyaltie, And therfore where ye
thincke that good & sound lawes might amende &
reforme thinges theare amisse ye thincke surely
amisse For it is in vayne to prescribe Lawes where
noe man Careth for kepeinge them nor feareth the
daunger for breakinge them but all the Realme is
firste to be reformed & Lawes are afterwardes to be
made for kepeinge & Contynueinge it in that reformed
Eudox: howe then doe ye thincke is the Reformation
therof to be begonne yf not by Lawes & ordinances.
Iren: Evene by the sworde for all these evills must
firste be Cut awaye by a stronge hande before any
goode can be planted like as the corrupt braunches &
vnholesome boughes are first to be pruned & the
fowle mosse clensed & scraped awaie before the
tree can bringe forthe anie good fruyte . / .
Eudox: ded ye blame me evene nowe for wishinge
kerne horseboyes & Carrowes to be cleane cutt of
as to violent a meanes & doe your self prescribe the
same medicyne, Is •• not the sworde the most violent
redresse that maye be vsed for anie evill . / .
Iren: It is soe but yet where noe other remedye maye
be devized nor noe hope of Recouerye hadd theare must
needes this violent meanes be vsed as for the loose kinde
of people which ye wolde have Cutt of I blamed yt
for that thei

for that they might otherwise be brought perhaps to
good as namelye by this waye which I sett before
yowe / .
Eudox: ys not your waye all one with the former
in effect which ye found fault with save onlye
this oddes that I said by the halter & ye saie
by the sworde what difference is theare .
Iren. Theare is surely a great when yowe
shall vnderstand yt for by the sworde which I
named I doe not meane the Cuttinge of of
all that nation with the sword (which farr be it
from me that ever I should thincke so desperatly
or wishe soe vncharitablye) but by the sword
I meane the Royall power of the Prince which
ought to stretche yt forthe in her cheiffest strengthe
to the redressinge & cuttinge of, of those evills which
I before blamed & not of the people which are evill
for evill people by good ordinances & government maye
be made goode, but the evill that is of it self
evill will never become Goode . / .
Eudox: I praie yowe then declare your mynde
att Lardge howe ye woulde wishe that sword
which ye meane to be vsed to the reformation
of all those evills .
Iren: The firste thinge muste be to send over
into that Realme soche a stronge power of
men as that should perforce bringe in all that
rebellious route of loose people which either doe
nowe stand owt in open Armes or in wandringe
Companies doe kepe the woodes spoylinges and
infestinge the good subiecte /


Eudox: ye speake nowe Iren: of an infinite charge to her
Maiestie to sende over soche an army as should treade downe
all that standeth before them vnder foote and laye on the
grownde all the stiffe necked people of that Land for
theare ys nowe but one owtlawe of anie grete reckninge
to weete the Earle of Tyrone abroade in Armes ageinst
whome ye see what huge charges she hathe beene att
this last yere in sendinge of men providinge of victells
& makinge heade against him, yet theare ys litle or
nothinge at all done but the Quenes treasuer spent
her people wasted the pore Countrye troubled and
the enemye nevertheles brought into noe more subieccion
then he was or •• liste outwardlye to shewe which in effect
is none, but rather a scorne of her power & embouldeninge
of a proude Rebell & and encouragement of all leike
leude disposed Traytors that shall dare to lifte vpp
their heele against their soueraigne Lady, Therfore
it were harde Counsell to draine soche an exceedinge
charge vppon her whose event shoulde be soe vncerteine:
Iren: Trewe indeed if the event should be vncerteine but
the Certentie of the effecte hereof shalbe soe infallible as
that noe reason can gainesaye yt neither shall the charge
of all this armye the which I demand be muche greater
then soe muche as in the laste two yeris warres hathe
vaynelie bene expended, for I dare vndertake that yt
hath Coste the Quene above Two hundred thowsand
Powndes allreadye, and for the present charge she nowe
is at theare amountes to verie nere,
a monthe wherof cast ye the accompt yett nothinge don
the which some hadd it bene imployed as it should be
would have effected all this which I nowe goe aboute
Eudox: howe •••• meane yowe to haue it imployed but
to be spent in the paie of souldiers & provicion of victell:
Iren: Righte soe. but it is nowe not disbursed at once as
it mighte be but drawne out into a longe lengthe by
sendinge ouer

sendinge over nowe Twentie thowsand Powndes & nexte
half yere tenne thowsand, soe as the said souldier in
the meane tyme is for want of due provicion of victell
& good paiement, of his souldior starved & consumed that
of a thowsand which came over lustie able men in haf
a yere theare are not lefte vC and yet is the Quenes
charge never a whitt the lesse, but what is not paid
in present money is accompted in debt, which will not
be longe vnpaide for the Capteine half of whose soldiers
are deade and the other quarter never mustered nor
sene comes shortlye to demaund paiement here of his
whole accompt where by good meanes to some great
ones & privye sharinge with the servauntes & officers of
other some he receyveth his debte muche lesse perhaps
then was due yett much more indeed then he
iustlie deserved:
Eudox: I take this sure to be noe good husbandrye for
what must needes be spent as good spent at once
wheare is enoughe as haue it drawen out into longe
delaies seinge that therbie bothe the service is muche
hindred and yet nothinge saved, But it maye be
Iren: that the Quenes treasuer in soe great
occasions of huge disbursementes as it is well knowne
shee hathe bene att Latelie is not allwaies so redy nor
soe plentifull as it can spare soe great a somme
togither: but beinge paid as it is nowe some & then
it is noe great burden vnto her nor anie greate
impouerishment to her Coffers seeinge by soche delaye
of tyme that it daylie Cometh in as faste as shee
powreth it owte / .
Iren: It maie be as yowe saye, But for the goeinge
thorough•• of soe honorable a Course I doubt not but
if the Quenes Coffers be not soe well stored (which
wee are not to looke into) but that the whole Realme
which nowe as thinges are vsed) doe feele a contynuall
burden of that wretched Realme hangeinge vppon
their Backes


their backes, woulde for a finall riddance of all that
trouble be once troubled for all & put to their shouldrs
& helpinge handes & hartes too, to the defrayeinge of that
Charge moste gladlie & willinglye, and surelye the
charge in effecte is nothinge to the infinite great goode
that shoulde Come therbye bothe to the Quene and
to all this Realme Generally as when time serveth
shalbe shewed . /
Eudox. Howe manie men then woulde yowe Requier
to the finishinge of this which ye take in hande, And
howe longe space woulde yowe have them entertayned
Iren: Verylye not above Ten thowsand footemen &
a Thowsand horse, and all those not above the space
of one yere & an half, for I would still as the heate
of the service abateth abate the nombre in paye &
make other provition for them as I will shewe /.
Eudox: Surelie it seemeth not muche which ye requier
nor noe longe time but howe would ye have them
vsed would ye leade fourthe your Armye against the
enemye & seike him wheare he is to fighte / .
Iren: Noe Eudox: that woulde not be for it is well
knowne that he is a flyenge enemye hydinge him
self in woodes & boges from whence he will not
drawe forthe but into some streight Passage or
perillous foourde where he knowes the Armye must
needes passe theare he will lye in a waye and if
he finde advantage fitt will dangerouslye hazzard
the troubled souldior therfore to seeke him out that
still flitteth & followe him that can hardlye bee
founde were vaine & bootelesse, But I woulde
devyde my men in Garrison vppon his Countrye
in soche places

in soche places as I should thincke might moste annoye
him . /
Eudox: But howe Can that be Iren: with soe fewe
men, for the enemye as ye nowe see is not all
in one Countrye but some in Vlster some in
Connaght & others in Leinster soe as to plante
stronge Garrisons in all those places shoulde
neede manie more men then ye speake of or to
plant all in one & to leave the Reste naked should
be but to leave them to the spoyle . /
Iren I would the Cheif power of the ••••••••
Armye to be garrisoned in one Countrye that
is strongest & the Reste vppon the Rest that
are weakest, As for Ensample the Earle of
Tyrone is nowe Counted the strongeste vppon him
would I laye Eight Thowsande men in
Garrison a Thowsand vppon feagh ma Hughe &
the Cavanaghes and a Thowsand vppon
some partes of Connaght to be at the direction of
the Governor . /
Eudox I see nowe all •• your men bestowed, but
in what places would yow sett their garrison that
they might rise out most Conveniently to service
And thoughe perhaps I am Ignorant of the
plan, yet I will take the mapp of Ireland
before me & make myne eyes in the meane
whyle my Schoulmasters to guide my vnderstandinge
to iudge of your Plott . / .
Iren: Those Eight thowsand of Vlster I wold
devide likewise into three partes soe as theare sholde
be too Thowsand footemen in euerye garrison, The
which I would thus place vppon the Blackewater
in some convenient


in some conveniente place as highe vpp the ryver as might be
I woulde laye one garison, an other would I put a Castle
liffar or Castlefin or thearaboutes: soe as they should have
the passages vppon the river to loghfoile, The thirde I
would place about fermanaghe or Bundroisse as thei
might lie betwene Connaght and Vlster to serve vppon
bothe sides as occasion shalbe offred, and this therfore
woulde I have stronger then anie of the Rest bicause
it shoulde be most enforced & most employed, and
that they might put wardes att Ballashaine Belick
and all those Passages, The laste woulde I sett
about Monohan or Belterbert soe as it shoulde
front both vppon the enemye that waye, and
alsoe kepe the Countie of Cavan & Meath in awe
from passinge of straglers and outgadders from those
partes whence they vse to Come fourthe & oftentymes
wourke muche mischeif and to euerie of those garrisons
of two Thowsand footemen I would haue CC horsmen
added for the one without the other can doe but litle
service, The fower garrisons this beinge placed
I would have to be victelled afore hand for half
a yere which ye will saie to be hard conscideringe
the Corruption & vsuall wast of victualls but
whie shoulde not they be as well victelled for soe
longe time as the shipps are vsuallye for a yere
& sometymes two seinge it is easier to kepe them on
Land then water, Theare bread I would have
in flower soe as it might be baked still to serve
their necessarye want there drincke also there
brewed within them from tyme to tyme & there
beif aforehand barrelled the which maye be vsed
but as it is needed, for I make noe doubt but freshe
victelles they will sometimes purvaye them selues
amongst their enemyes Crete hereunto would I
leikwise have

liekwise have them haue store of hoes & shoes with soche
other necessaries as maie be needfull for soldiers
Soe as they should haue noe occasion to looke for
releif abroade or occasion soche troble for their
contynuall supplie as I see & haue often proved
in Ireland to be more Combrous to the deputie &
daungerous & daungerous to them that releive them
then half the leadinge of an Armie for the
enemyes knowinge the ordinarye waies by which
their releif must be brought them, vsethe
Comonlye to drawe him self into the streight
passages thitherward & oftentymes dothe dangerously
distresse them Besides the paie of soche force
as shoulde be sent for their convoye the charge
of the Carriages the of the Contry
shalbe spared but onlye euerye half yere the
supplie brought by the deputye him self and
his power whoe shall then visit & overlooke
all those garrisons to see what is needed to
change what is expedient & to direct what
shall best advise, And these fower garrisons
issuenge fourthe at soche convenient tymes as
they shall have intelligence or especiallye
vppon the enemye, will soe drive him from
one side to an other & tenes him amongst them
that he shall finde noe where safe to kepe
his Crete nor hide him self but flyeinge from
the fyer shall fall into the water & out of
one Daunger into an other, that in shorte
space his Crete which is his most sustenance
shalbe wasted with prayeinge or killed with
Dryvinge or starved for want of pastuer
in the woodes and he him self broughte soe
Lowe that


lowe that he shall haue noe harte nor habilitie to
endewre his wetchednes, The which will surelye
come to passe in verie shorte time for one winters
well followinge of him will soe plucke hem on
his kneeles that he will never be able to stand
vpp againe /.
Eudox: Doe yow then thincke the winter time fittest
for the services of Ireland howe falles it then
that our most imployementes be in somer & the Armies
then ledd Comonly fourthe /.
Iren: It is surelie misconceyved for it is not with
Ireland as with other Countreis where the
warres flame most in sommer & the helmettes glister
britest in fayer sunneshyne, But in Ireland the
winter tyme yeildeth best services for then the
treis are bare & naked which vse bothe to ••••• clothe &
house the kerne, The grounde is Could & weete
which vseth to be his beddinge, the Ayre is sharpe and
bitter to blowe throughe his naked sides & legges
the kyne are Barrene & withowt milke which
vseth to be his onlye foode, Nether if he kill them
then will they yeilde him fleshe nor if •••• he
kepe them will they geive them foode: besides then
beinge all in Calf for the most parte they will
throughe muche Chasinge & Dryvinge caste all ther
Calues & loose their milke which should releive him
the next somer after /:
Eudox: I doe well vnderstand your reason but by your
leave I haue heard it otherwise said of some that
were Owtlawes that in somer they kept them selues
quiet but in winter they woulde playe their partes &
when the nightes were longest then burne & spoyle
moste soe that they might safelie returne before daye /

Iren: I haue leikwise harde & seene proof therof trewe
but that was of soche outlawes as were either abidinge
in well inhabited Countreis as in Mounster or borderinge to
the Englishe pale as Phehaghe ma Hughe the
Cavanaghes the Mores the Dempses the ketins the
kellies or soche like, For for them in deede the winter
is the fittest tyme for spoylinge & Robbinge bicause the
nightes are then (as ye said longest & darkest, &
also the Countreis all about are then fullest of
Corne & good provicion to be euerye where gotten
by them but it is farre otherwise with a stronge
peopled enemye that possesse a wholle Countrye
For the other indeed beinge but a fewe are
privilye lodged & kept in outvillages & Corners
nighe the woodes & mountaynes by some their
prevye frendes to whome they bringe their
spoyles and stealthes & of whome they continually
receive secrete releif, but the open enemye
havinge all his Countrye wasted what by him
self & what by the souldier findeth then
succor in noe place: Townes theare are none
of which he maie gett spoyle they are all burnt
Countrye houses & Farmors there be none thei
be all fledd breade he hathe none he
plowed not in somer fleshe he hathe •••• but
if he kill it in winter he shall want milke
in somer & shortly want lief, Therfore if
they be well followed but one winter ye
shall have litle wourke with them the next
Somer . / .
Eudox: I doe


Eudox: I doe nowe well perceyve the diffrence & doe
verilie thincke that the winter time is theare fittest
for service withall I Conceyve the manner of your
handlinge of the service, to weet by drawinge suddeine
draughtes vppon the enemye when he looketh not
for yowe & to watche advantages vppon him as
he dothe vppon yowe by which streigthte kepeinge
of them in and not suffringe them at anye tyme
longe to Reste I must needes thincke I must needes
thincke that thei will soone be brought lowe
and driven to great extremities, All which when
ye have performed & brought them to the verie
last Caste suppose that they will all offer
to Come vnto yow & submitt them selues or yf
some of them will seke to withdrawe them selues
what is your advise to doe will ye haue them
receyved :
Irenius No•• but at the begyninge of these warres
& when the garrisons are well planted & well fortefied
I would wishe a proclamation were made generally
to Come to their knowledge, that what persons soeuer
woulde within twentye dayes absolutely submitt
them selues (exceptinge also the verie principall
& Ringeleaders shoulde finde grace, I doubt not
but vppon the settlinge of these Garrisons soche
a terror & nere Conscideration of their perillus
estate wilbe striken into most of them that they
will covett to drawe awaye from their leaders;
And againe I well knowe that these Rebellions
them selues (as I sawe by proof in the desmondes
warres) will turne awaye all ther Castle people
whome they

whome they thincke vnservicable as ould men weomen
Children ••••• and hindes which they Call Churles
which would onlye waste their victualls & yeild
them noe aide but their Cattell they will surely
kepe awaye, These therfor thoughe Pollicye
would turne them backe againe, that they might
be rather consume & afflict the other Rebells
yet in pittifull Comiseration I would have
them to be Receyved, the Rather for that these
base sorte of people dothe not for the most parte
Rebell of them selues havinge noe hart therunto
but is of force drawen by the grande Rebells
into the Accion & Carried awaie with the
violence of the streame ells he shoulde be
sure to Loose all that he hathe and perhaps
his lief too the which nowe he Carrieth vnto
them in hope to enioye them theare but he is
theare by the stronge rebells them selues soune
turned out of all soe that the Constraint hereof
maye in him deserve pardon likewise if anie
of their hable men or gentlemen shall then
offer to Come awaye & to bringe ther Crete with
them, as some noe doubt maie steale them
awaye previlye, I wishe them also to be
receyved for the dishablinge of the enimye
but with all that good assurance maie be
taken for their true behavior & absolute submission
and that then they be not suffred to Remayne
anie longer in those partes noe nor about the
garrison but sent awaye into the inner partes of
the Realme & disposed in soche sorte as
they shall not


they shall not come togither nor easilie Returne if
they woulde, For if they might be suffred to remayn[e]
about the Garrison and theare inhabit as thei
will offer to till the grounde & yeild a great
parte of the profitt therof & of their Cattell to the Coronell
wherwith heretofore they haue tempted manie, they would
(as I haue by experience knowne) be ever after soche a gall
& inconvenience vnto them as that their profitt shall
not Recompenc their hurt, for they will previlye
releive their friendes that are fourthe, they will
sende the enemye secrete advizement of all their
purposes and iourneis which they meane to make
vppon them, they will alsoe not sticke to drawe
the enemye privilye vppon them ye & betraye
the ••••• forte it self, by discouerye of all their
defectes and disadvantages: yf anie be to the Cuttinge
of all their throtes For avoydinge wherof & manie
other inconveniences I wishe that they shoulde be
carried farre from thence into some other partes so that
as I said they come in and submitt them selues
vppon the firste somons, But afterwardes I wold
haue none Receyved but lefte to their fortune &
miserable ende My reason is, for that ••••••••••
those which will afterwardes remayne without are
stoute & obstinate Rebells soche as will never be
made dutifull & obedient nor brought to
Labor or civile conversation having once tasted
that licentious lief & being acquainted with
spoyle and outrages but will ever after for
the like occasions soe as there is noe hope of
there amendment or recouerye & therfore nedfull
to be Cutt of:
Eudox: Surelye of soche desperate persons, as will
wilfullie followe the Course of their owne follye
there is noe Compassion to be hadd & for the
others ye

others ye have proposed a mercifull meanes much
more then they haue deserved but what then
shall be the Conclusion of this warre for ye
have prefixed a shorte time of his Contynnewanc:
Iren: The ende will I assure me be verie shorte
and muche sooner then can be in soe great a troble
(as it semeth) hoped for Although thear should
none of them fall by the sword nor be slayne
by the soldier, yet thus beinge kept from manuraunc
& their Cattell from ••••••••• comminge abroade by
this harde restraint they wold quickly consume
them selues & devoure one other, the proof
wherof I sawe sufficientlie insampled in
those late warres of mounster for notwithstandinge
that the same was a most riche & plentifull
Countrye full of Corne and Cattle that ye
would have thought they Could haue bene hable
to stande longe, yett ere one yere and a half
that they were brought to soe wonderfull wretched=
=nes as that anie stonie harte would haue Rewed
the same, out of euerye corner of the woodes and
glinnes they Came crepeinge forthe vppon their
handes, for theare legges coulde not beare them
they looked like anotymies of deathe they speake
like ghostes cryinge out of their graves, they ded
eate the deade Carions, happye were they
Could finde them, yea and one an other soone
after, insomuche as the verie Carcases they spared
not to scrape out of ther graves And if they
founde a Plotte of watercresses or Shamorockes
theare they flocked as to a feaste for the tyme
yet not hable longe to Contynue there withall
that in short space theare were none almost
lefte, and a most populus & plentifull contry
suddeinlye lefte


suddeinelie lefte voyde of manne • or beaste: yett sure•••
in all that warre their perished not manie by the sword
but all by the extremitie of famyne which they them
selues had wroughte.
Eudox: It is wonder that ye tell & more to be woondred howe
it sholde be soe shortelie come to passe
Iren: yett is it most true and the reason also very
•••••••••• readie for ye must conceyve that the strength
of all that Nacion is the kerne Galloglasse Stocaghe
horsman & horseboye the which havinge bene never
vsed to haue any thinge of their owne & nowe livinge
vppon spoyle of others make noe spare of anie thinge
but havocke and confusion of all they meete with whither
it be their owne Frendes good or their foes, And if thei
happen to gett never soe great spoyle at anie tyme
the same they waste & consume in a tryce as naturally
delightfull in spoyle thoughe it doe them selues noe
good & on the other syde whatsoever they leave vnspent
the soldier when he cometh theare, spoileth & havocketh
likewise soe that betwene bothe nothinge is verye
shortlie lefte & yet this is verie necessarie to be don
for the soone finishinge of the warres & not onlie in this
wise but also all those subiectes which border vppon those partes are
either to be removed & drawen awaye or likewise to be spoiled
that the enemie maie finde noe succoure therbie for what the
soldier spares the rebell will surelie ••••• spoyle: /.
Eudox I doe nowe well vnderstande yow but nowe when all
thinges are broughte to this passe & filled with those ruefull
spectacles of soe manie wretched carcasses starvinge goodly
Countreis wasted soe huge a disolation & confusion, as even
I that doe but heare it from yow & doe picture in my minde
doe greatlie pittie & comiserate, yf it shall happen that the
state of this miserie & lamentable image of thinckes shalbe
tolde & feelinges presented to her sacred maiestie beinge by nature
full of mercie & clemencye whoe is most inclineable to soche pittifull
complaintes & will not endewre to heare soche tragedies made of
her people & pore subiectes as some about her insinuate then
she perhaps for verie compassion of soche callamities will not only
stopp the streame of soche violence & returne to her wonted mildnes,
but also

But also con them litle thanckes which haue bene the aucthors & counsellors
of soche bloodie platformes, soe I remembre that in the late goverment of
that good lorde Graye when after longe traveile & manie perillus assaies
he hadd brought thinges allmost to this passe that ye speake of that
it was evene made readie for reformatyon & might have ben brought
to what her Maiestie would like complainte was made against him
that he was a bloodie man & regarded not the lief of ther subiectes no more
then dogges but hadd wasted & consumed all soe as nowe shee hadd
almost nothinge lefte but to raigne in their Ashes Eare was soone
lent therunto all suddenlie turned topsideturvaye, he noble Lord eftsones
was blamed the wretched people pittied & newe counsells plotted
in which it was concluded that a generall pardon should be sent over
to all that wold accepte of it vppon which all former purposes were
blancked the governor at a baye & not only that great & long
charge which shee hadd before bene at quite lost & cancelled but
also all that hope of good which was evene at the dore put backe and
cleane frustrate, All which whither it be true or noe your self can
well tell:
Iren: Too trewe Eudox: the more the pittie, for I maie not forgett soe
memorable a thinge neither can I be ignorant of that perillus
device & of the whole meanes by which it was compassed & verye
cuninglie contrived by sewinge first discention betwene him & an
other noble personage wherin they bothe at lengthe founde howe notably
thei hadd bene abused & howe therbie vnderhande this vniuersall
alteration of thinges was brought about, But then to late to staye
the same for in the meane tyme all that was formerlie done with
longe laboure & great toyle, was (as yow saye) in a moment vndonn
& that goode lorde blotted with the name of the bloody man. whome
whoe that well knewe, ••• knewe to be most gentle affable
lovinge and temperate but that the necessitie of that present state of
thinges enforced him to that violence & allmost changed his verie
naturall disposition, But otherwise he was soe farre from delightinge
in blood that oftentimes he suffred not iust vengeance to fall where
it was deserved & evene some of those which were afterwardes his accusers
hadd tasted to muche of his mercie & were from the gallowes broughte
to be his accusers but his course indeed was this that he spared
not the heades & principalls of anie mischevious practise or
rebellion, but shewed sharpe iudgment on them for ensamples sake
that all the meaner sorte which alsoe were then generallie infected with
that evill mighte by terror therof be reclaymed & saved if it were
possible for in that laste conspiracie of the Englishe pale thincke yow
not that theare were manie more guiltie then that felte the
pvnishment: or was theare anie allmost Clere from the same, yet
he touched onlye a fewe of speciall note & in the triall of them
alsoe evene to prevent the blame of Crueltie & partiall proceedinge
and seekinge their blood which he in his great wisdome (as it semed
ded foresee


ded foresee woulde be obiected against him, he for avoydinge therof ded
vse a singular discretion & regard, for the Iury that went vppon ther
tryall he made to be chosen out of thear neerest kinsmen & thear Iudges
he made of some their owne fathers, of others their vncles & dereste
frendes whoe when they could not but iustlie condepne them, yett vttered
their iudgment in abundance of teres & yett herein was counted bloody
& Cruell . /
Eudox: Indeed so haue I heard it often here spoken, but I
perceive (as I allwaies verilie thoughe) that it was most vniustly
For he was knowne to be a moste iuste sincere godlie & right noble
man farr from soche sternesse farre from soche vnrightuousnes, But
in sharpe execution of the Spanierdes at the forte of Smerwick
I hearde it speciallie noted & if it were true as some reported
surelie it was a great towche to him in honor For some saye that
he promised them lief others that at leaste he did put them in hope
therof . / .
Iren: Bothe one & the other is most vntrue for this I can Assure
yow my self beinge as nere then as anie that he was so farre
from either promiseinge or puttinge in hope, that when firste
their secretarie called as I remembre Segnor Jeffry an Italian
beinge sent to treatie with the lord deputie for grace was flatly
refused & afterwardes their Coronell named Don Sebastian came
forthe to entreat that they might parte with their Armors like
soldiers att least with their lives accordinge to the Custome of warre
& lawe of nations it was stronglie denyed him & tould him by
the Lord deputie him self that they Could not iustlie pleade
either custome of warre or lawe of nations, for that they were not
anie lawfull enemyes, And if they were willed them to shewe
by what Comission they came thither into an other Princes
Dominions to warre whither from the Pope or the
kinge of Spayne or anie other, The which when they said
hadd not but were onlye adventurers that came to seke
fortune abroade and serve in warres amongest the
Irishe who desierid to entertayne them, it was then
tolde them that the Irishe them selues as the Earle
and Iohn of Desmond with the Rest were noe
Lawfull Enemyes but Rebells & traytors and therfore
they that Came to succoure them noe better then Rogues
& Ronnagates specially Comynge with noe license nor Comission
from theire

from their owne kinge: soe as it shoulde be dishonorable for him
in the name of his Quene to Condicion or make anie termes
with soche Rascalls: But lefte them to their Choice to yeild
& submitt them selues or noe, whervppon the said Coronell
ded absolutelie submitt •h•im self•• and the forte withall
therin and craved onlie mercy which it beinge not thought
good to shewe them, bothe for daunger of them selues if
beinge saved, they should afterwardes ioyne with the Irishe
& also for terror of the Irishe whoe were much imbouldened
by those forreine succours & also put in hope of more ere longe
there was noe other waie but to make that shorte ende
of them which was made, Therfore most vntruelye and
maliciouslye doe these evill tonges backbite & sclaunder the
sacred Ashes of that most iuste & honorable personage whose
least virtue of manie most excellent which abounded in his
heroicke spirite they were never able to aspire vnto. / .
Eudox. Truelie Iren: I am Righte gladd to be thus satisfied
by yow in that I haue often heard questioned & yet was never
able till nowe to choke the mouthe of soche detractors with the
certeine knowledge of their sclaunderous vntruthe, neither
is the knowledge hereof unpertinent to that which we formerly
hadd in hand I meane to your throughe prosecuteinge of that
sharpe Course which ye haue sett downe for your bringinge
vnder of those Rebells of Vlster & Connaght and
preparinge awaye to their perpetuall reformacion least
happelie by anie soche sinister suggestions of cruelty
& too muche bloodshedd all the plot might be ouerthrown
& all the Coste & Labor therin employed be vtterly
caste awaye / .
Iren: ye saie most true for after that Lordes
callinge awaye from theare the two Lordes Iustices
contynued but a whyle of which the one was of mynde
(as it semed) to have contynued in the footinge of
his predecessor, but that he was curbed & Restrayned
but the other was more myldlye disposed as was meet
for his profession & willinge to have all the pittifull
woundes of that Comon wealth healed & Recured
but not with that heed as they should be, After
whome sir


whome sir Iohn Perrott succeedinge as it were into an other
mans harvest found an open waie to what Course he liste
the which he bent not to pointe, which the former governors hadd
intended but rather quite Contrary as it were in scorne of
the former & in vaine vaunt of his owne Counsells with
the which he was too wilfully Carried for he ded tread
downe & disgrace all the Englishe & sett vpp &
Countennce the Irishe all that he Could whither
thinckinge therbie to make them the more tractable & buxome
to his goverment, wherin he thought muche amisse or previly
plottinge some other purposes of his owne as it partlye
afterwardes appered but surely his maner of government cold
not be sound nor holesome for that Realme beinge soe
Contrary to the former, for it was evene as too Phisicions sholde
take one sicke bodie in hand at two sondrye tymes of which the
former woulde minister all thinges meet to purge & kepe vnder
the bodie the other to pamper & strengthen it suddainly againe
wherof what is to be looked for but a most daungerous
relapse: that whiche wee nowe see throughe his ••••
Rule, the next after him happned therunto beinge
nowe more daungerouslye sicke then ever before, therfore
by all meanes it must be foresene & assured that after
once enteringe into this Course of reformation, thear be
afterwardes noe Remorse or drawinge backe for the
sight of anie soche ruefull obiectes as must theare vppon
followe nor for compassion of their callamities seinge
that by noe other meanes it is possible to recure them
and that these are not of will but verie vrgent necessitye
Eudox: Thus farre then ye haue nowe proceeded to plant
your garrisons & to direct their services; of the whiche
nevertheles I must needes conceyve that there cannot be
anie certeine direccion sett down soe that they must followe
the occasions that shalbe daylie offred & dilligentlye
awayted but by good leave, Iren. nothwithstandinge all
this your Carefull foresight & provicion me thinckes I see
an evill lurke vnespied that maye chaunce to hazzard hope
of all this great service if it be not verie well looked vnto
& that is the Corruption of their Capteines for thoughe thei
be placed

be placed never soe carefully & their Capteines fild never soe
sufficientlie yet maye they if they list discarde whome
they please & sende awaye soche as will perhaps willingly
be ridd of that dangerous & harde service The which well
I wote is their comen Custome to doe when they are laid in
Garrison, for then they maie better hide their defaultes
then when they are in Campe wheare they are contynually
eyed & noted of all men Besides when their paye commeth
they will (as they vse) detayen the greatest portions therof
at their pleasure by an hundred shiftes, that neede
not here be named, throughe which they oftentymes
deceyve the souldier abuse the Quene & greatlye
hinder the service Soe that let the Quene paye
never soe fullie, let the mustar master viewe them never
soe dilligentlye, lett the deputye or generall looke to
him never soe exactly yet they can Cosen them all
Therfore me semes it were good if at least it be
possible to make some provition for this inconvenience / .
Iren: It will surelie be verie hard: but the cheiffest help
for prevention hereof must be the Care of the Coronell
that hathe the goverment of all his Garrison to have an
eye to their Alteration to knowe the nombre &
names of the sicke souldiers and the slayne marke &
observe their Ranckes in their daylie Ryseinge forthe
to service by which he cannot easilye be abused soe that
he him self be a man of speciall assurance & integritye
and therfore great regard in the Choosinge & appointinge
of them Besides I wold not by anie meanes that
the Capteines should haue the payenge of ther souldiers
but that their should be a paye master appointed of speciall
trust which should paie euerye mane accordinge to his
Capteines tickett, and the accompt of the Clarke of
his band. For by this meanes the Capteine will never
seeke either to falsefie his alterations nor to diminishe
his Companie nor to deceyve his souldiers when
nothinge therof shall sure to come vnto him self but
what is his owne bare paye, And this is the maner
of the Spanierd whoe never hathe to medle withe
his souldiers


his souldiers paye & indeed scorneth the name as Base
to be counted his souldiers Pagadore. wheras as contrary
amongst vs hath brought thinges to soe badd a passe that
there is noe Capteine but thinckes his bande very sufficient
if he can muster iijxx & stickes not to saye openlye that
he is vnwourthie to have a Capteineshipp that cannot
maketh wourth vCli a yere the which they Right well
verifie by the proof /.
Eudox: Truelie I thincke this a verie good meane to
avoyde that inconvenience of Capteines abusions but what
saye yow of the Coronell what aucthoritie • thincke yow
meet to be geivene him, whither will ye allowe him
to protecte to safe Conduyte to haue Marshiall Lawe as they
are accustomed . / .
Iren: yea vearilie but all these to be limitted withe
verie streight instructions & thus for proteccons, That they
shall have aucthoritie after the firste proclamation for
the space of xxti daies to protecte all that shall come
vnto them and then to send vnto the deputie with ther safe-
Conduict or passe to be att his disposition: but so as none of
them returne backe againe being once come in but be
presentlye sent awaye out of the Country vnto the next
shreif & soe convayed in safetie, And likewise for marshall
Lawe that to the souldier it be not extended but by triall
formerlye made of his cryme by a Iurye of his felloe soldiers
as it ought to be & not rashly at the will or displeasuer
of the Coronall as I have somtymes sene to lightly and as
for other of the Rebells that shall light into their handes
that they be well aware of what Condicion they bee &
what holdinge they haue: For in the last generall warres
there I knowe manie good freeholders executed by marshall
lawe whose lande was therbie saved to their heiers which shold
otherwise haue excheated to her Maiestie, in all which the great
discretion & vprightnes of the Coronell him self is to be the
Cheiffest saye bothe for all these doubtes & for manie
other dificulties that maie in the service happen /.
Eudox: your caution is verie good, But nowe towchinge the Arch
Rebell him self I meane the Earle of Tyrone if he in
all the

all the time of these warres shoulde offer to come in & submitt
him self to her maiestie would ye not haue him receyved giving
good hostages ••••• & sufficient assurance of him self
Iren: Noe marie, for theare is noe doubt but he will offer to
come in as he hathe done diuerse times allreadie, but it is
withowt anie intent of true meaninge or submission as the
effecte haue well shewed neither inded can he come nowe
in att all if he would nor geive that assurance of him self that
should be meet for beinge as he is verily subtillie headed seinge
himself nowe soe farre enaged in his badd Accion can he
thincke that by his submission he can purchase to himself anie
safetie but that hereafter when thinges shalbe quieted these
his villanies wilbe ever Remembred & when soeuer he shall
treade awrye as needes the moste Righteous must somtymes
advantage wilbe taken therof as a breach of his pardon & he
brought to a Reckoninge of all former matters / Besides howe hard
it is for him nowe to frame him self to subieccion that havinge
once sett before his eyes the hope of a kingdome hath therunto
not onlie founde encouragement from the greatest kinge in
Cristendome but also found great faintnes in her Maiestie with-
standinge him, wherbie he is animated to thincke that his
power is alle to defende him & offende further then he hath
done when soe he please lett everie Reasonable man Iudge
But if he him self •• should come in, & leave all
other his accomplices without as Odonell Macmahan
& the Rest he must needes thincke, that then
evene they will eare longe cut his throte which havinge
drawen them all into this occasion nowe in the middest
of their troble geiveth them the slipp, wherbie he
must needes perceive howe impossible it is for him to
submitt him self, But yett if he wolde soe doe can
he not geive anie assurance of his good obedience: For
howe weake hold theare is by hostages hathe too often
bene proved, And that which is spoken of takinge
Shane O'neales sonnes from him & settinge them
vpp against him is a verie perillus Counsell & not
by anie meanes to be put in profe for were they lett forthe
& Could overthrowe whoe shall afterwardes overthrowe them
Or what


the tale in Aesope of the wilde horse whoe havinge enmity
againste the stagge came to a man to desier his aide
against his foe whoe yeilded therunto mounted vppon
his Backe & soe followinge the stagge err long slewe him:
But then when the horse would have him alight he
refused but kept him ever after in his service & subieccion
Suche I doubt would be the profe of Shane Oneales
sonnes, Therfore it is most daungerous to attempte
anie soche Plotte, For evene that verie maner of plott
was the meanes by which the trayterous Erle is nowe
made soe greate: For whenas the last Oneale Called
Turlaghe lenaghe began to stand vppon some tickle
termes this felloe then Called Baron of Donganon was
sett vpp as it were to bearde him & Countenanced and
strengthned by the Quene so farr, as that he is
nowe able to kepe her self playe muche like vnto a
Gamester that havinge lost all borroweth of his next
fellowe Gamester that is nowe the most wynner somewhat to
maynetayne playe which he settinge vnto him againe
shortelie therbie wynneth all from the wynner / .
Eudox: was this Rebell then sett vpp first by the Quene
as yow saye & nowe bicome soe vnduetiful /
Iren: he was I assuer yow the most outcaste of all the
Oneales then & lifted vpp by her Maiestie out of the
duste to that he nowe hathe raught him self vnto
and nowe he playeth like the frozen snake, who beinge
for compassion relieved by the husbondman sone after
he was warme beganne to hisse & threaten daunger
evene to him & his / .
Eudox: he surelie then deserveth the pvnishment of that
snake & should wourthilie be hewed to peices But if
ye like not of the lettinge fourthe of Shane oneales
sonnes against him what saye ye then of the advice
which I hearde was geiven by some to drawe in the Scottes
to serve /

to serve against him howe like yowe that device /.
Iren: muche wourse then the former for whoe that is
experienced in those partes knoweth not that the Oneales are
nerelie allied vnto the Mackonells of Scotland & to the
Earle of Argile from whence they vse to haue all their
successors of those Scottes & Redshanckes besides all
these Scottes are through longe contynuance entermingled
& allied to all the inhabitantes of the northe soe as theare
is noe hope that they will ever be wrought to serve
faithfullie against their olde Frendes & kinsmen, And
thoughe they would howe when the warres are finished
& they have overthrowen him shall they them selues
be put owt doe we not all knowe ••• that the Scottes
were the firste inhabitantes of all the northe & yt those
which are nowe called north Irishe are indeed verye
scottes which challendge the Auncient inheritaunc and
dominion of all that Country to be theare owne
auncientlie This then were then but to leape out
of the pan into the fyer, For the Cheiffest caviat
& provision in Reformation of the north must be to kepe
owt the Scottes. /
Eudox. Indeed I remembre that in your discourse of
the first peoplinge of Ireland ye shewed that the
Scithians or Scottes were the first that satt downe
in the northe wherbie it semes they maie challendge
some right therin howe comes it then that Oneale
Claymes the Dominion therof & this Earle of
Tyrone saithe the Righte is in him I praye yow
Resolue me therin for it is verie needfull to be
knowne & maketh muche vnto the Right of the warr
against him whose successe vseth comonly to be
accordinge to the iustnes of the Cause for which it
is made, for if Tirone haue anie right in that
seignory me semes it should be wronge to thust
him out Or if (as I remembre ye said in
the begyninge /


the begyninge) that Oneale when he acknowledged the
kinge of England for his liege lord & soueraigne ded (as
he alledgeth) reserve in the same submission all his
seignories & Rightes vnto him self it should be
accomptedd vniust to thrust him out of the same /.
Iren: For the Right of Oneale in the Seignorye of
the northe it is surelie none att all for besides that
the kinge of England Conquered all the Realme and
therbie assumed & invested all the Right of that
Land to them selues & their heyers & successors for
ever, soe as nothinge was lefte in Oneale but what
he Receaved backe from them, Oneale him self never
hadd anie Auncient seignorye over that Countrye but
what by vsurpation & inchrochment after the deathe of
the Duke of Clarence he gott vppon the Englishe
whose Landes & possessions beinge Formerlie wasted
by the Scottes vnder the Leadinge of Edwarde
Le Bruce
as I formerlie declared vnto yowe he
eftsoones entred into & sithens hath wrongfullye
detayned throughe the other occupations and
great affayers which the kinges of England soone
after fell into at home soe as they Could not entend
to the Recouerye of that Countrye of the Northe nor
restrayninge of the insolencie of Oneale whoe
findeinge none nowe to withstand him raigned in
that disolation & made him self Lorde of those
fewe people that Remayned theare vppon whome
ever sithens he hathe Contynued his vsurped
power & nowe exacteth & extorteth vppon all
men what he list, Soe that nowe to subdue or
expell an vsurper should be noe vniust interprize
nor wrongfull warr but a restitution of auncient
Right vnto the Crowne of England & a restoringe
of most possessions vnto the people of Englande
from whence they were most vniustly expelled
& longe kept out. / .

Eudox: I am verie gladd herein to be thus satisfied
by yowe that I maye the better satisfie them whome
I haue often hearde to obiect these doubtes and
sclaunderously to bark att the Courses which are held
against that trayterous Earle & his Adherentes.
but nowe that yowe have thus setled your service
for Vlster & Connagh, I wold be gladd to
heare your oppinion for the prosecuteinge of Feagh
ma Hughe whoe beinge but a Base villaine
& of him self of noe power yet soe contynually
troubleth that state, notwithstandinge that he
liveth vnder their nose that I disdayne his bold
arrogancye I thincke it to be the greatest indignity
to the Queene that maye be to suffer soche a
caytife playe soche Rexe & by his ensample not
only to geive harte & encouragement to all soche
bould rebells but alsoe to yeild them succoure &
refuge against her Maiestie, whensoeuer they flye into
his comericke, wherfore I would first wyshe before
yowe enter into your plott of service against him
that yow should laie open by what meanes he
beinge soe base firste lifted him self vpp to this
daungerous greatnes & howe he mayneteyneth
his parte against the Quene & her power
notwithstandinge all that hathe bene done &
attempted against him, And whither also he
haue anie pretence of Right in the Landes he
holdeth or in the warres that he maketh for the same /
Iren: I will soe att your pleasure & since ye desier
to knowe his firste begyninge I will not only discouer
the begyninge of his private house but also the originall
of all his sept of the Birnes & Tooles soe farre
as I have Lerned the same from some of them selues
and gathered


and gathered the rest by readinge, This people of the Birnes
& Tooles (as before I shewed vnto yowe my •••• Coniecture)
discended from the Auncient Britons which first inhabited
all those easterne partes of Ireland as their names do betoken
for Brin in the Birtons language signifieth woodie & Toll
hillie which names it semeth they took of the Contry which
they Inhabited which is all verie mountainy & woodye in the
which it semeth that ever sithens the Comynge in of the English
with Dermonegald they have contynued whither that their
Contry beinge soe rude & mountany was of them dispised
& thought not wourthie the inhabitinge, or that they were
receyved to grace by them & suffred to enioye their
Landes as vnfitt for anie other, yet it semeth that in some
places they ded put foote & fortefied with sondry Castles of
which the ruines only doe theare nowe remayne since
which tyme they are growne to that strengthe that they
are hable to lifte vpp hande against all that state & nowe
latelie through the• bouldnes and late good successes of
this Feagh ma Hugh they are soe farre imbouldned that
they threaten perills evene to dublin over whose necke
they Contynually hange but towchinge your demand of this
Feraghes right vnto that Country or the seignorye which
he claymes therin it is most vaine & arrogant. For this
ye •• Cannot be ignorant that it was parte of that which was
geiven in inheritaunce by Dermot ma Murrogh kinge of
Leinster to Strangbow with his daughter & which strangbowe
gaue over vnto the kinge & to his heyers Soe as the Right
is nowe absolutelie in her Maiestie: & if it were not, yet
could it not be in this Pheagh but in Obrin whoe is the
Auncient lord of all that Country For he & his
Auncestours were but followers vnto Obirne: & his grand
father Shane ma Tirlagh was a man of meanest
regard amongst them neither havinge welthe ••••
nor power but his sonne Hugh ma Shane the Father
of this Feagh firste begane to lifte vpp his heade &
through the strengthe & great fastnesse of Glan malour
which adioyneth vnto his house of Ballinecarre drewe
vnto him manie theives & outlawes which fledd into the
succor of that Glenne as to a sanctuarye & brought
vnto him

vnto him parte of the spoyle of all the Cuntrye through
which he grewe stronge & in shorte span got vnto
him self a greate manie therbie amonst the Irish
in whose fotinge this his sonne contynuinge hathe
throughe manie vnhappie occasions increased his
said name & the opynion of his greatnes soe that
nowe he is become a daungerous enemye to deale
withall . /
Eudox: Surelie I can Comend him that beinge of him
self of soe meane Condition hathe through his
owne hardines lifted him self vpp to that height
that he nowe dare front Princes & make termes
with great Potentates: the which as it is to him
honorable soe it is to them most disgracefull to be
bearded of soche a base varlet, that beinge but late
growne out of the dunghill beginneth nowe to
overcrowe soe highe mountaynes and make him •••
self great protector of all Outlawes & Rebells
that will repare vnto him, But do yowe thincke that
he is nowe so daungerous an enemy as he is counted
or that it is soe hard to take him downe as some suppose:
Iren: Noe verilie there is noe great Reckoninge
to be made of him for hadd he ever ben taken
in hand when the Rest of the Realme or at leaste
the partes adioyninge had bene quiete as the honorable
gentleman that nowe governeth theare I meane
Sir William Russell gave a notable attempt therunto
& hadd as wourthelie performed it yf his Course
hadd not bene crossed vnhappelie he could have stoode thre
monithes nor ever have looked vpp against anie meane
power But nowe all the partes about him beinge vpp in
a maddinge moode as the mores in leix the Cavanaghes
in the Countye of wexforde & some of the butlers in the
county of kilkennye they all flocke vnto him & drawe
vnto his Cuntrye as to a stronge hould where they
thincke to be safe from all that doe persecute them,
And from thence they doe at their pleasuers
break out


breake owt into all the borders adioyninge which are well
peopled Countreis as the Countyes of Dubline of kildare
of Catherlagh of kilkenny of wexford with the spoyles
wherof they victell & strengthen them selues which otherwise
sholde in short tyme be starved & forpined soe that
what he is of him self ye maye hereby perceyve /.
Eudox: Then by soe muche as I maye gather out
of your speche the next waye to ende the warres
with him & to roote him quyte out should be to kepe
him from invadinge of those Contreis adioyninge (which
as I suppose) is to be done by drawinge of all the
Inhabittantes of those next borders awaye & leavinge them
vtterlie waste or by plantinge Garrisons vppon all
those frontiers about him that when he shall breake
forthe maie sett vppon him & shorten his Returne /.
Iren: ye conceyve verie hardly Eudox: but forthe
dispeoplinge and drawinge awaye all the Inhabitantes
from the Countreis about him which ye speake of sholde
be a great Confusion & troble aswell for the vnwillingnes
of them to leave their possessions as alsoe for placinge &
provideinge •• for them in other Countreis mee seemes the
better Course should be by plantinge of garrisons about
him the which whensoeuer he shall looke forthe or be drawne
out with the desier of the spoyle of those bordres or
for the necessitie of victell shalbe allwaies readie
to entercept his goenge or Comynge . / .
Eudox: where then doe ye wishe those Garrisons
to be planted that they maye serue best against him
& howe manie in euerye garrison: /.
Iren: I my self by Reason that (as I tould yow) I am
noe martiall man will not take vppon to directe soe
daungrous affaiers but only as I vnderstood by the
purposes & Plottes which the lord Grey whoe was
well experiended in that service against him ded
Laye downe to the performance wherof he only
Requiered a Thowsand men to be Layed in fower
Garrisons that is at Ballinecorre ijC footemen and
fiftye horse which should shutt him out of his great

Glenne wherto he soemuche trusteth, at knocklouh ijC
footemen & fiftie horsemen to answere the Countye of
Carle at Arclo or Wicklo CC footemen to defende all
that side toward the sea in Shillelah C footemen
which should cut him from the Cavanaghes and
the Countye of wexford and about the three Castles
fiftie hosemen which should defende all dublyn &
a C footemen att Talbottes towne which should kepe
him from breakinge into the Countye of kildare, and
be allwaies on his necke on that side, The which
Garrisons soe Layde will soe buisye him that he
shall never reste at home nor sturre fourthe
abroade but he shalbe hadd, As for his Create
they Cannot be above growned but they must
needes fall into their handes or starue for he hathe
noe fastnes nor restinge for them and as for the
partakers of the mores Butlers and Cavanaghes
they will soone leave him when they see his
fastnes & stronge places thus taken from him . / .
Eudox: Surelie this semeth a plott of great reason
& small difficultie which promiseth hope of a
shorte ende, But what speciall direccions will
ye sett downe for the services & risinges out of these
Garrisons / .
Iren: None other then the present occasions shall
minister vnto them and as by good especialls wherfore
theare they cannot want store they shalbe drawne
Contynually vppon him soe as one of them shalbe
still vppon him & sometymes all at one instante
baytinge him And this I assure my self will
demand no longe tyme but wilbe all finished in the
space of one yere which howe small a thinge vnto
the eternall quietnes which shall therby be purchased
to that Realme & the great good which shall growe
•••••• to her maiestie should me thincks redilye
Drawe on her highnes to the vndertakinge of the
enterprise /
Eudox: /


Eudox: ye haue verie well me seemes Irenius
plotted a Course for the acchivinge of those warres
nowe in Ireland which seeme to aske noe longe tyme
nor great Charge soe as the effectinge therof be
Comitted to men of sure truste & sounde experienc
aswell in that Country as in the manner of these
services, For if it be lefte in the hande of soche
Rawe Capteines as are vsually sent out of Ingland
beinge therto preferred onlye by frendshipp & not
chosen by sufficiencye it will soone fall to grownde
Iren: Therfore it were meete me thinckes that soche
Capteines only were hereunto employed as have
formerlye served in that Country & bene at leaste
lieutenantes vnto other Capteines theare for otherwise
beinge broughte & transferred from other services abroad
as in france in Spayne & in the lowe Countreis, thoughe
they be of good experience & haue never soe well
deserved yet in these they will be newe to seeke and
before they haue gatherid experience they shall buye
it with greate losse of her maiestie either by hazzarding
of their Companies throughe ignorance of the places
and in manner of the Irishe service or by loosinge a great
parte of the tyme which is Requiered hereunto but shorte
in which it might be finished before they have allmost
taken out a newe lesson or can tell what is to be done
Eudox: yowe are noe good frend to newe Capteines it
seemes Iren: that barre them from the Creditt of
this service but to saye truthe me thinckes it were meet
that anie one before he Come to be a Capteine shold
haue bene a souldier fo: Parere qui nescit imperare
& besides theare is greate wronge done to the oulde
souldier from whome all meanes of advauncment which
is dewe vnto him is cut of by shufflinge in these
newe Capteines into the places for which he hathe long
served & perhaps better deserved) But nowe that ye
haue thus (as I suppose) finished all the warre
& brought all thinges to that Lowe ebb which ye spake
of what Course will ye take for the bringinge in of
that reformation which ye intende, & Recoueringe all
thinges from

thinges from this desolate estate in which me thinckes
I behould them nowe lefte ••••• vnto that perfect
establishment & newe comen wealth which ye haue
Conceyved of which soe greate goode maye redound
to her Maiestie & an assured peace be confirmed
for that is it wherunto we are nowe to looke
& doe greatlye longe for beinge longe sithens
made wearye with the huge Charge which ye
have laid vpon vs & with the stonye endurance
of soe manie Complaintes soe manie delaies
soe manie doubtes & daungers as will hereof
I knowe well, arise vnto the which before ye
come it were meete me thinckes that ye shold
take some ordre for the soldier which is nowe
firste to be discharged & disposed of some
waye, the which if ye doe not well foresee
maye growe to as great inconvenience as all
this that wee suppose ye haue quitt vs from
by the loose leavinge of soe manie thowsandes soldiers
which from thensforthe will be •••• vnfitt for any
Labor or other trade but must either seeke
service & imployment abroade which maie be dangerous
or ells will perhaps employe them selues here at
home as maye be discomodious:
Iren: ye saye verie trewe, And it is indeed a
thinge muche misleiked in this our comen wealthe
but noe better course is taken for soche as
haue bene imployed once in service but that
returninge whither maymed or soe vnhable to
laboure or otherwise thoughe hole & sounde yett
afterwardes vnwillinge to wourke rather willinge
to sett the hangeman to wourke But that nedeth
an other Conscideracion: but to this that we have
nowe in hande it is farre from my meaning
to leave the soldier soe at Random or to leave
that wast Realme soe weak & destitute of
strengthe which maie bothe defende it against other
that might


that might seeke to sett vppon it, and alsoe
kepe it from that relapse which I before forecaste
for it is one speciall good of this plotte which I
wold devise that sixe thousand soldiers of those
whome I have nowe employed in this service &
made throughlie acquainted bothe with the state of the
Contrye & manners of the people should hensforthe be still
contynued and for ever be mayneteyned of the Countrye
withowt anie charge to her Maiestie and the reste that either
are ould & vnhable to serve longer are willinge to fall to
thrifte, as I haue sene manie souldiers after the
service to prove verie good husbandes should be placed
in parte of the Landes by them wonne at soche Rate
or rather better then others to whome the same shalbe
sett out / .
Eudox Is it possible Iren: Can theare be anie soche meanes
devised that soe manie men shoulde be kepte still for
her Maiesties service without anie charge to her at all surely
this were an exceedinge great good bothe to her highnes
to haue soe manie ould souldiers allwayes readie at call
to what purposes soever she liste to imploye them
and also to have that Lande therbie soe strengthned
that it shall neither feare anie forreine invasion nor
a practise which the Irishe shall ever attempt but
but shall kepe them vnder in contynuall awe & firme
obedience. /
Iren: It is so indeed, and yet this truelie I doe not take
to be anie matter of dificultie as I thincke it will also
soone appere vnto yow And we will firste speake of
the north partes for that the same is of most weight
& importance, Soe soone as it shall appere that
the enemy is brought downe and the stout rebell
either cutt of or driven to that wretchednes that he is
noe longer able to hould vpp hande but will come
in to anie Condicions which I assure my self wilbe
before thende of the second winter I wishe that
thear be

theare be a generall proclamation made that what soeuer
Outlawes will freelie come in & submitt them selues
to her Maiesties mercie shall haue libertie soe to doe, wheare
they shall •• either fynde that grace that thei desier or have
leave to returne againe in safetie, vppon which it is
liklye that soe manie as survive will come in to sewe
for grace. Of which who•• so are thought meete for
subieccion and fit to be brought to good maye be
receyved or ells all of them for I thincke that all
wilbe but a verie fewe vppon Condition & assuraunc
that they will submitt them selues absolutely to her Maiesties
ordinance for them by which they shalbe assured of
of lief & libertie and be only tyed to soche Conditions
as shalbe thought by her meet for Conteyninge them
ever after in due obedience, To the which conditions
I nothinge doubt but that they will all most redily
& vppon their knees submitt them selues by the
proof of that which I sawe in Mounster for vppon
the like proclamation there they all came in bothe
tagge & Ragge and when as afterward manie of
them were denied to be received they bad them
doe with them what they woulde for they would not
by anie meanes returne againe nor goe fourthe for
in that Case whoe will not accept allmost of any
Conditions rather then die of hunger & misery:
Eudox: It is verie liklye soe but what then
is the ordinance and what be the Conditions
which ye will propose vnto them that
shall Reserve vnto them an Assurance
of lief & libertie . / .
Iren: soe soone •• then they haue geiven the best
Assurance of them selues which maye be requirid
which must


which mvste be I suppose some of there principall
men to remayne in hostage one of another & some
other for the Reste (for other suertie I reckon of none
that they binde them neither of wief nor of children
since then perhaps they would gladlie be rydd bothe from
the famine) I would haue them firste vnarmed vtterlye
& stripped quite of all their warlike weapons, and
then these Conditions sett downe & made knowne vnto
them that they shalbe brought & removed with soche
Crete into leinster where they shalbe placed & have
land geivene them to occupie and to live vppon
in soche sorte as shalbe come good subiectes to labour
thensforth for their livinge & to applie themselues
vnto honest trades of Civilitye as they shall euery
one be found meet & hable for.
Eudox: where then a godes name will ye place them
in Leinster or will ye finde out anie newe land
theare for them that is yet vnknowne:
Iren Noe I will place in all the Country of the Burne
& Tooles which Feagh ma Hughe hath and in all the
Landes of Cavanaghes which are nowe in rebellion &
all the landes which will fall to her Maiestie thearaboutes
which I knowe to be verie spacious & large enoughe
to Conteyne them beinge verie neere Twentye
or Thirtie miles wyde /.
Eudox: But what then will ye doe with all the Birnes
the Tooles & the Cavanaghes & all those ••• that
nowe are ioyned with them /.
Iren: At the same verie time & in the same verie maner
that I make the proclamation to them of Vlster will I also
have haue it made to these, & vppon there submission
therunto I will take like assurance of them as of
the other, After which I will translate all that remaine
of them into the places of the other Vlster withall
their Creet & what ells they haue lefte [them th]e
which I will cause to be devyded amongst [them]
i[n some meet]

in some meet sort as each maie therby have some
what to sustayne him self a while withall vntill
by his further traveile & labour of the earthe he
shallbe able of him self to provide better /.
But will ye then geive the land freely vnto them
& make them heiers of the former rebells, soe may ye
perhaps make them heiers of all their former villenies
& disorders or howe ells will ye dispose of them
Iren: Not soe but all the Landes I will geive vnto
Englishmen whome I will haue drawne thither
who shall haue the same with soch estates as shalbe
thought meet & for soche Rent as shalbe eftsoones be
Rated vnder euerie of these Englishmen will I
place some of those Irishe to be tenantes for a
Certeine Rent accordinge to the quantitie of soche
Land as euerie man shall haue allotted vnto him
& shall be found hable to welde, wherin this
speciall Regard shalbe hadd that in noe place
vnder anie Landlord there shalbe manie of them
planted togither but dispersed wyde from
their acquaintaunces & scattred farr abroad throughe
all the Contry: For that is the evill which I nowe
finde in all Ireland that the Irishe dwell all
togither by their septes & seuerall nations soe as
they maie practise or Conspire what they will
wheras if theare weare Englishe shedd amongst
them & placed over them they should not be
able euer to sturr or to murmour for that it
should be knowne & they shortned accordinge
to their Demerittes:
Eudox: ye haue good Reason but what Rating
of Rentes meane yow to what end doe yow purpose the same
Iren: My purpose is to rate the Rent of all those
Landes of her Maiesties in soche sort vnto those
Englishmen which shall take them as they maye
be well


be well hable to live thervppon yeild her Maiestie a
reasonable cheferye and also geive a competent
maintenanc vnto the Garrisons which shall thear be
lefte amongst them For those soldiers (as I told yow)
remayninge of the former garrisons I caste to
mainteyne vppon the Rent of those Landes which shalbe
excheated & to haue them devided throught all Ireland
in soche places as shalbe thought most convenient &
occasion maie requier & this was the Course which
the Romanes observed in the Conquest of England
for they planted some of their legions in all places
Convenient the which they caused the country to mainteyne
cuttinge vppon euerie portion of lande a Reasonable rent
which they called RomeScotte the which might not surcharge
the tenant or Freehoulder & defraye the paie of the
Garrison And this hath bene allwaies obserued by all
princes in all Countres to them nuelie sudued to sett
Garrisons amongest them to contayne them in duety
whose burden they made them to beare, And the wante
of this Ordinance in the firste Conqueste of Ireland
by Henry the second was the Cause of the soe shorte
decay of that Goverment and the quick recouery againe
of the Irishe, Therfore by all meanes it is to be
provided for And this is it that I would blame (yf
it should not misbecome me) in the late plantinge of
Mounster that noe Care was hadd of this ordinanc
nor anie strengthe of a garrison provided for by certen
allowance out of all the said Landes but only the present
profitt looked vnto And the safe Contynuance ever hereafter
••••••••• neglected
Eudox: But theare is a bande of souldiers Laid in mounster
to the maintenanc of which what oddes is there whither
the Quene of England perceyvinge the Rent of the Contry
doe geive paie at her pleasuer or that therbe a setled
allowance appointed vnto them out of her Landes there
Iren: There is good oddes for nowe that said Rent
of the Countrye is not to the paye of the souldiers
it is by euery other occasion Comeinge betwene Coverted
to other

to other vses and the souldiers in tymes of peace
discharged & necglected as vnnecessary wheras if
the said rent were appointed & ordayned by an
establishment to this ende only it should not be turned
to anie other nor in troublous tymes vppon euerye
occasion her Maiestie be soe troubled with sendinge over
newe souldiers as shee nowe is nor the Contry euer
should dare to mutine havinge still the souldier •• in their
necke nor anie forraine enemye dare to invade knowing here soe
stronge a Garrison allwaies redie to receyve him / .
Eudox: Sithe then ye thincke this of the paie of the soldier
vppon the land to be bothe the readiest waie to the souldier
& leaste troublesome to hir Maiestie, tell vs I praie yow howe
ye would haue the said landes rated that bothe a rent maye
rise therout vnto the Quene and also the soldiers paye
which me semes wilbe harde /.
Iren: Firste we are to Conscider howe muche land thear is
in all Vlster that Accordinge to the quantitie therof wee may
Cesse the said rent & allowance issueing therout Vlster
as the Auncient recordes of that Realme doe testifie dothe
Contayne Nyne thowsandes Plowlandes euerie of which plowlands
Conteyneth sixe score Acres after the Rate of xxj foote to euerye
Pearche of the said Acre which amounteth to in the whole vnto
1240000 Acres, Euerye of which plowlandes which shall excheat
vnto her Maiestie maie be rented at xlvis viijd by the yere
which is not muche more then jd ob' the Acre the which rente
amounteth in the whole to xviijiij li, But bicause the
Countie of Louth beinge •• a parte of Vlster & contayning
in yt vijC and xij plowlandes is not wholie to excheat
vnto her Maiestie: •• ••• ••••• •••••• as the reste they havinge
in all those warres contynued for the moste parte dutifull
thoughe otherwise a great parte therof is nowe vnder the
Rebells theare is an abatement to be made here out of
iiijC or vC plowlandes as I estimate the same the which are
not to paye the whole yerelie Rente of xls out of every
plowland like as the excheated landes doe, but yett shall pay
for their Composicion of Cesse towardes the maintenanc of the
souldier xxs


souldier xxs out of euerye plowland soe as theare is to be deducted out
of the former some ij or iijC li yerely the which maye nevertheles be
supplied by the rent of the fishing which is exceedinge great in Vlster
& also by an increase of rent in the beste landes & those that
lye in the best places nere the seacoaste, The which xviijtene
Thowsand poundes will defraie the entertaynement of xvC
souldiers with overplus towards the paie of the victells which
are to be imployed in the victellinge of these garrisons /.
Eudox: Soe then belike ye meane to leave xvC souldiers in
Garrisons for Vlster to be paid principallye out of the Rente
of those landes which shall theare excheate to her Maiestie The which
wheare I praie yow will ye haue Garrisoned
Iren: I will haue them devided into three partes that is vC in
euerye garrison the which I will haue to remaine in three
of the same places where they were before appointed to weet
vC at Strabane & about loghsoyle soe as they maie hould
all the passages of that parte of the Country & some of them
be putt in wardes vppon all the straightes thereaboutes which
I knowe to be soche as maie stopp all passages into the
Contrye on that side & some of them also vppon the
vp towardes logh Sidney as I formerly directed Alsoe
other vC at the forte vppon logh Earne & wardes taken
out of them which shalbe laid at fermanagh at Belicke
at Ballishannin and on all the streightes towardes Connaght
the which I knowe doe soe stronglie Comand all the Passages
that waye as that none can passe from Vlster into Connaght
without theare leave the laste vC shall also remayne at
the forte in Moghonan & some of them be drawne into
wardes to kepe the keyes of all that Country bothe downwardes
and alsoe towardes Orelies & the pale as some as Eniskillin
some at Belterbert some at the blacke fort & soe alonge
that river as I formerly shewed in the firste plantinge of
them, And moreover at euery of these fortes I would have
the seate of a Towne laid foruthe & incompassed in the
which I would wishe that theare should Inhabitauntes
of all sortes of marchauntes Artificers & husbandmen
be placed to whome theare should Chartres & franchises
be graunted

be graunted to incorporate them, The which as will be no matter
of dificultie to drawe out of England persons which would very
be soe placed, soe wold it in shorte space turne those partes to
great Comoditie & bringe erre longe to her Maiestie much profitt
for those places are soe fitt for trade & trafficke havinge most
Covenient outgages by Rivers to the sea & ingates to the
Richest partes of the Lande that they would soone be
inriched & mightelie enlarged for the verie seatinge of
Garrisons by them besides the safetie & assuraunce which
they shall worke vnto them will alsoe drawe thither
store of people and trade, as I haue sene ensampled att
Mariburghe & Philipstowne in leinster whear by
reason of those two fortes thoughe theare were butt small
wardes lefte in them theare are too goode towne • nowe
growne which are the greatest staye of both those ij Counties
Eudox: Indeed me seemes three soche towne as ye
saye would doe verie well in those places with the garrisons
& in shorte space would be soe augmented as they wold
be able with litle help to inwall them selues strongly
But for the plantinge of all the Rest of the Contry
what ordre would ye take / .
Iren: what other then as I said to bringe people out
of England which should inhabit the same, wherunto
though I doubt not but that great troupes would
be readie to ronne, yet for that in soche Cases the
worst & most decayed men are moste readie to remove
I would wishe them rather to be chosen out of all partes
of this realme either by discretion of wise men therunto
appointed or by lott or by the Drume as was the old
vse in sendinge fourthe of Collonies or soche other good•
meanes as shall in their wisdome be thought meetest,
Amongst the cheif of which I would haue / the Lande sett
into Seignories in soche sorte as it is nowe in Mounster
& devided into Hundredes & parishes or wardes as it is
in Ingland & laid out in shiers as it was Aunciently
Videlicet the


Videlicet the Countie of Downe the Countie of Antrian the County
of louthe the Countie of Armagh the Countie of Cavan, the
Countie of Colrane the County of Monaho the County of Tirone
the Countie of Fermanagh the County of Donnergall beinge all
in teir Over all which I wishe a lord president & a
Councell to be placed which maye kepe them afterwardes
in awe & obedience & minister vnto them Iustice & equity /
Eudox: Thus I see the whole purpose of your plott for
Vlster & nowe I desier to heare your like opinion for Connaght /
Iren: By that which I haue allreadie said of Vlster ye maie
gather my opinion for Connaght beinge verie answerable
to the former, But for that the landes which therin shall excheat
vnto her Maiestie are not soe intirely togither as that thei
can be accompted into one some it needeth that they be
Conscidered seuerally, The province of Connaght
conteyneth in the whole (as appereth by the Recordes at
Dublyn) vijm and two hundred plowlandes of the former
measure & is of late devided into sixe shires or countys
the County of Clare the County of letrim the County of
Roscaman the Countye of Gallway the Countye of Maio &
the Countye of Sligah of the which all the County of
Sligah all the County of Maio the most parte of the
County of Roscoman the most parte of the County of lietrim
a great parte of the County of Gallway & some of the
County of Clare is like to excheat vnto her Maiestie for
the Rebellion of their present possessiors, The which two
Countyes of Sligah & Maio are supposed to Contayne
allmost iijm plowlandes the Rent wherof Ratablye to
the former I valewe almost at vjm li per annum the County
of Roscoman & some other fewe Englishe theare lately
seated is all out, And therfore it is wholie likwise to
excheat vnto her Maiestie savinge those portions of the English
Inhabitantes and evene those English doe as I vnderstand
by them paye as muche Rent to her Maiestie as is sett vppon
those in

those in Vlster Countinge theare Composition money there
with all soe as it maie Ronne into one Reckoninge with
the former two Counties, Soe that this Countie of Roscoman
Conteyninge xijC plowlandes as it is accounted amounteth
to ijm iiijC powndes by the yere which with the Former
two Counties Rent maketh about viijm vijC poundes for
the former wanted somewhat, But what the excheated
Landes of the County of Gallway & lietrim will arise
vnto it is yet vncerteine to define till survaye therof
be made for that those Landes are intermingled withe
the Earle of Clanricard & others Landes but it is
thought that they be the one half of bothe those countyes
soe as they maye be Counted to the valewe of one
whole Countie which Conteyneth above one thowsande
plowlandes (for soe manie the least County of all
Comprehendeth which maketh two thowsand poundes
more that in all about x or xjm poundes the other
two Countyes must remayne till thear excheates appere
The which lettinge passe yet as vnknowne, yett this
muche is knowne & to be accounted for Certeine that
the Composition of these two Counties beinge Rated at
xxs euerie plowlandes will amount to ijm li more
all which beinge land togither to the Former maye be
resonablie estimated vnto xiijm poundes the which some
togither with the rent of the excheated Landes in the two laste
Countyes which cannot yet be valewed (beinge as I doubt
not lesse then a Thowsand powndes more) will yeyld
paie lardglie vnto a thowsand men & their victellers
and a thowsand powndes •••• over towardes the governor
Eudox: ye haue me thinckes made but an estimate
of those Landes of Connaght evene at a very venture
soe as it should be •••• hard to buylde any
Certeinetye of charge to be Raised vppon the
same ./ .


Iren: Not altogither yet vppon vncerteinties for thus muche
maie easilie appere vnto yow to be certeine as the Composition
money of euerie ployland amounteth ••• vnto, for this I wold
have yowe principallie to vnderstand, that my purpose is
to Rate all the Landes in Ireland at xxs everie plowland
for their Composition towardes the Garrison, The which I
knowe in Regarde of beinge freid from all other charges
whatsoeuer will be readilie & most gladlie yeilded vnto
soe that there beinge in all Ireland (as appereth by ould
recordes) 43920 plowlandes the same shall amount to the
some likewise of 43920li and the rest to be reared of the
excheated Landes which fall to her Maiestie in the said provinces
of Vlster Connaght and that parte of leinster vnder
the Rebells (for Mounster wee deale not yet withall)
Eudox: But tell me this by the waye doe yow then laye
Composition vppon the excheated Landes as ye doe vppon
the Reste for soe me thinckes ye Reckon all togither and
that sure were to muche to paie vij nobles out of euery
plowland & Composition money besides that is xxs out
of eurye plowland . /
Iren: Noe ye mistake me I doe put only vij nobles rente &
Composition both vppon euerye ploughland excheated that is
•• xls for Composition & vjs viijd for chiefrye to her Maiestie /.
Eudox: I doe nowe conceave yowe proceed then I praie yowe
to the appointinge of your Garrisons in Connaghe & shewe
vs bothe howe manie & where ye would haue them placed. / .
Iren: I would haue one thowsand in Connaght in two
Garrisons namelie vC in the Countye of Maio about Clan
ma Costulaghes
which shall kepe all Maio & the Bourkes
of ma Wellam Euter The other vC in the County of Clanriccard
about Garrandough that they maie Contayne the
& the Bourkes theare the Killes & the Mackmurries with all
thearabout For that Garrison which I formerlye placed at
logh Earne will serue for all occasions in the Countye of Sligah
beinge nere adioyninge thervnto soe as in one nightes marche
they maie be allmost in anie place therof when neede shall
requier them, And like as the former places of Garrison
in Vlster

in Vlster I wished two Corporate townes to be planted
which vnder the safeguard of that strengthe should dwell
& trade safelie withall that Countrey about them, so
would I alsoe wishe to be in this Connagh and that
besides theare were an other established at Athlone with
a convenient warde in the Castle theare for their defence:
Eudox: what should that need seinge that the Gouernor
of Connaght vseth to lie theare allwaies whose presence
wilbe a defence to all that Towneshipp
Iren: I know he dothe soe but that is much to be disliked
that the Governor should lie soe farre of in the
remotest place of all that province, wheras it were
meeter that he should be contynually abidinge in the
middest of his Charge that he might bothe loke out
alike into all places of his goverment & also be soone
at hand in anie place where occasion shall demand
him for the presence of the Governor is (as yow said)
a great staye & bridle vnto those that are ill
disposed like as I see it well observed in Mounster
where the dailie good therof is contynually apparent
And for this Cause also I doe greatly disleike the lord
deputies seatinge at Dublyn beinge the outest corner
in the Realme & leaste needinge the awe of his presence
wheras me seemes it were fitter, since his proper Care
is of leinster thoughe he • have Care of all besides
generally that he should seat him self about Athie or
thearaboutes vppon the skirte of that vnquiet Contry
soe that he might sitt, as it were at the verye
meane maste of his shipp, whence he might easilye
overlooke & sometymes overeache the mores the butlers
the dempsies the ketins the Connors Occaroll Omoley
& all that heape of Irishe nations which theare lye
hudled togither without anie to ouerawe them or conteyne
them in dutye: for the Irishman I assuer yow feares the
goverment noe longer then he is within sighte or Reache
Eudox: Surelie me seemes herein ye observe a matter of
••• muche importance more then I haue heard ever noted:
but sure that semes soe expedient as that I wonder that


heretofore it hath bene oversene or omitted, But I suppose
the Instance of the Cittizens of Dublyn is the greatest
lett therof . /
Iren: Truelie then it ought not soe to be for noe Cause
haue they to feare that it wilbe anie hindrance for
them for Dublyn will be still as it is the key of all
passages & transportations out of England thither to noe
lesse profitt of those Cittizens then it nowe is, And besides
other places will herebie receyve some benefitt but lett vs
nowe I praye yow come to leinster in the which I woulde
wishe the same Course to be obserued that was in
Vlster /.
Eudox: ye meane for the leavinge of the Garrisons in their
fortes and for plantinge of Englishe in all those countreis
betwene the Countye of Dublin & the County of wexford
But those waste wilde places I thincke when they are
wonne vnto her Maiestie, that theare is none which wilbe hasty
to seeke to Inhabite / .
Iren: yes enoughe I warrant for though the wholle tract
of the Country be moountayny & woodye yett theare are
manie goodlie vallies amongst them fitt for fayer habitacions
to which those mountaynes adioyned wilbe a great increase
of pasturage for that Countrye is a verie greate soyle of Catle
& verie fitt for breed, As for Corne it is nothinge naturall
saue onlie Barlie & otes & some for rye, & therfore the large
pennie wourthes maie be allowed to them thoughe other wise
the wickednesse of the mountayne pasturage doe recompence
the badnesse of the soyle, Soe as I doubt not but that yt
will finde Inhabitauntes & vndertakers enoughe /.
Eudox: Howe muche then doe yow thincke that all those Landes
which feagh ma Hugh holdeth vnder him maie amount vnto
& what rent maie be reard thearout to the maintenanc of the
Garrisons that shalbe laid theare /.
Iren: Truelie it is impossible by ayme to tell yt & for
••••••• experienc & knowledge therof I doe not thincke
that theare was ever anie of the particulers therof, But yett
I will if it please yowe Ghesse thearat vppon grownde
only of their

onlie of their iudgment which haue formerly devided all that Country
into too shiers or Counties naelye the Countye of Wicklo &
the Countye of fernes, The which two I see noe Cause but
they should whollie excheat to her Maiestie all saue the
Baronye of Arclo which is the Earle of Ormondes auncient
Inheritaunc and hathe ever bene in his possession, For
the wholle lande is the Quenes vnlesse theare be some graunt
of anie parte therof to be shewed from her Maiestie, as I thincke
theare is only of Newcastle to Sir Henry Harrington & of
the Castle of fernes to Sir Iohn Maisterson, The reste
beinge allmoste thirtie Miles over I doe suppose can not
contayne noe lesse then two m ploughlandes which I will
estimate att mmmmli rent by yere, The rest of leinster
beinge vijen Counties to weet the Countie of Dublyn Kildare
Catherlogh wexford Kilkenny
the kinges & the Quenes
Countie doe Conteyne in them 7400 which amounteth to soe
manie poundes for Composicion •• to any Garrison that makes
in the whole xjm iiijC Powndes The which some will yeild
paie vnto m Soldiers litle wantinge which maye be supplied
out of other Landes of the Cavanaghes which are to be excheated
to her Maiestie for the Rebellion of their possessiouers though
otherwise indeed they be her owne Auncient demeane.
Eudox: It is great Reason But tell vs nowe •••••••
wheare woulde ye wishe those garrisons to be Laide
whither alltogither or to be dispersed in sondry places of
the Countrye /
Iren: Mary in sondrie places to weete in this sorte or muche
the like as maie be better advised for ijC in a place I doe
thincke to be enoughe for the safegarde of that Contrye &
Kepeinge vnder all suddaine vpsturtes that shall ••••• seeke
to troble the peace therof therfore I wishe CC to be Laid
at Ballinocorre for the kepeinge of all badd persons from
Glanmaloure & all the fastnes therabout & alsoe to
Contayne all that shalbe planted in those Landes thence
fourthe, Another CC at knocklouh in their former place of
Garrison to kepe the Briskelagh & all those mountaynes
of the


of the Cavanaghes CC more to lye at fernes and vpwardes
in wardes vppon the Slane, CC to be placed at the forte
of leix to restrayne the Mores Ossorye & Occariall, other
CC at the forte of Offalye to curbe the Connors Omoloys ma
••• Coghlan Maccaghegan and all those Irishe nations
borderinge thearabout
Eudox: Thus I see all your Thowsand men bestowed in leinster
what saie yowe then of Meath which is the fifte parte
Iren: Meath which conteyneth both eastmeath & westmeath and
late the Analy nowe called the Countie of longforde is
accompted therunto but Meath it self •• accordinge to the
ould recordes Conteyneth 4320 ploughlandes & the county
of Longford 947 which in the whole makes 5207 ploughlandes
of which the Composicion money will amount likwise to fyve
Thowsand two hundred threescore & seven ploughlandes
to the maintenanc of the Garrison But bicause all
Meathe beinge in the Bosome of that kingdome is allwaies
quiet enough it is needlesse to put anie Garrison thear
soe as all that charge maye be spared, But in the Countie of
Longford I wishe two hundred fotemen and fiftie horsmene
to be placed in some convenient seate betwene the Analy
& the Breny as about loughsillon or some like place of
that River soe as they might kepe both the Orelies &
also the OFeralls & all that out skirt of eastmeath the
which vse vppon euerye light occasion to be stirringe and
havinge Contynuall enmitye amongst them selues doe
therbie oftentymes troble all those partes the charge wherof
beinge iijm iiijC & odd poundes is to be cutt out of that
Composition for Meath and longford, The overplus beinge
allmoste mmli by the yere will come in Clerelie to her Maiestie /.
Eudox: It is wourthe the harkeninge vnto but nowe that ye
have done with Meathe proceede I praie yowe to Mounster
that wee maie see howe it will rise theare for the maintenanc
of the garrison /.
Iren: Mounster conteyneth by Recorde att dublin 16000 plough
Landes the Composicion wherof as the Rest will make xvjm li
by yere

by yere out of the which I would haue a Thowsand soldiers
to be mainteyned for the defence of that province, the
Charge wherof with the victellers wages will amount
to xijm li by yere the othe iiijm li will defraie the charge
of the presedencye & the Councell of the province . /
Eudox: The Reckoninge is easie, But in this accompt
by your Leave me thinckes yowe are deceyved for in this
some of the Composition money ye accompt the Landes
of the vndertakers of that province whoe are by ther
graunte from the Quene to be free from all soche
imposicions whatsoever exceptinge their only Rent
which is surely enoughe /..
Iren: ye saie true I ded soe but the same xxs for
eury ploughland I meant to haue deducted out of
that Rent dewe vppon them to her Maiestie which is noe
hindrance nor charge att all more to her Maiestie then it
nowe is, for all the Rent which shee Receives of them
shee putteth fourth againe to the maintenanc of the
presedencye there, the charge wherof it doth scarsly
defraye wheras in this accompt bothe that Charge of
the Presedency & alsoe of a thowsand Soldiers more
shalbe mainteyned /.
Eudox: It should be well if it colde be brought to that
But nowe wheare will ye haue your thowsand men
Garrisoned ./
Iren: I would haue C of them placed at the Baintry
wheare it is a most fitt place not onlie to defend all
that side of the weste part from forraine invasion but
also to answere all occasions of troubles to which that Contry
beinge soe remote is verie subiect & surelie there alsoe
would be placed a good towne havinge bothe a verie good
haven and a plentifull fishinge: and the lande beinge
allreadie excheated to her maiestie but beinge forciblye kept
from her by a Ragtayle kerne that proclaymes him self
the bastard sonne


the bastard sonne of the Earle of Clancarr beinge called donell
Maccartie whom it is meet to foresee to cutt of, for when soeuer
the Earle shall die all those landes after him are to Come vnto
her Maiestie, he is like to make a foule stirre theare though of him
self noe power yet through supportaunc of of some others who
lie in the winde & looke after the fall of that Inherritaunc
An other .C. would I haue placed at the Castle mayne which
should kepe all Desmond & kerrye for it Answerith them
moste convenientlye, Also about killmore in the county of
Cork would I haue CC placed the which should breake
that neste of theives theare & answeare equally bothe the
counties of limricke & alsoe the Countye of Corke, an other
C wold I haue lye at Corke aswell to Comaund the
towne as alsoe to be readie for anie forraine occasion
likewise at waterford woulde I place CC for the same
reasons & also for other privye Causes that are noe
lesse importaunt, Moreover on this side of Arlo nere
to Muskry whirke which is the Country of the Bourkes about
would I haue CC more to be garrisoned
which should scoure bothe the white knightes Country &
Arlo & Muscry whirke by which places all the passages
of theives dothe lie which convaye their stealthe from
all Mounster downewardes towardes Tipperar and
the Englishe pale, and from the Englishe pale also
vpp into Mounster wherof they vse to make a Comon trade
Besides that ere longe I doubt that the County of Tipperary
will neede suche a strengthe in yt which were good to be
theare Readie before the evill fall that is dailye of
some expected, And thus yowe see all our garrisons
placed /.
Eudox: I see it Right well but, lett me I praye yowe
by the waie aske yowe the Reason whie in those Citties
of Mounster namelie namely waterford & Corke ye rather
placed garrisons then in all the others in Irelande
For they

For they maie thincke them selues to haue great wronge to
be soe charged above all the Reste . / .
Iren: I will tell yow Those two Citties above all the Reste
doe offer an Ingate to the Spanierd most fitlye, and
also the Inhabitauntes of them are moste ill affected to the
Englishe goverment and moste frende to the spanierd But
yett bicause they shall not take exception to this that
they are Charged above all the rest I will alsoe laye
a charge vppon the other likwise for in deede it is
noe reason that the Corporate Townes Inioyninge great
fraunchises & priviledges from her Maiestie •livinge therby
not only safe but drawinge to them the wealthe of all
the Land should live so free as not to be partakers of
the burden of this Garrison for their owne safetye
especiallie in the tyme of troble & seeinge all the rest
burdened, And therfore I will thus charge them
Ratablye, yf shee please spare out of the charge
of the Rest & Reserve towardes her other Costes or ells
add to the charge of the Presedencye in the northe


Sum iiijC iiijxx l



Eudox: It is easie Iren: to laye a charge vppon anie towne
but to foresee howe the same maie be answerd & defrayed
is the cheif parte of good advizement /.
Iren: Surelie this charge which I put vppon them I knowe
to be soe reasonable as yt it will not much be felte for the
Porte townes that haue bene fitt of shipping maye cutt
itt easilie of their trading And in land townes of their
Corne & catle neither doe I see but that since to them specially
the benefitt of peace doe redound that they specially should
helpe to beare the burden of their owne safegard & defence
As wee see all the Townes of the Lowe Country doe cutt
vppon them selues an excise of all thinges towardes the
maintenanc of the warre that is made in their behalf to which
though these are not to be compared in Riches yett are
to be charged accordinge to their povertie /.
Eudox: But nowe that ye haue thus sett vpp these forces
of soldiers & provided well as ye suppose for their paye
yet theare Remayneth to forecaste howe they maye be
victelled & where purveyance therof maie be made for in
Ireland it self I cannot see howe anie thing allmost is to
to be hadd for them beinge allreadie soe pittifully wasted
as it is with this short tyme of warre /
Iren for the firste two yeris indeed it is needfull that they
be victelled out of England throughlie from half yere
to half yere aforehand, all which time the Englishe pale
shall not be burdened at all but haue to recouer them
selues & mounster beinge •• also nowe reasonably ••••••
well stored, will by that time if god send seasonable
weather be throughlie well furnished to supplie a great
parte of that Charge for I knowe theare is great plenty
of Corne sent oversea from thence, the which if they might
haue sale for at home they would be glad to haue money
soe nere hande specially if they were straightly restrayned
from transportinge it therunto also there wilbe a great help
& furtherance geivene in the puttinge forward of husbandrye in
all meete places

all mete places as hereafter shall in dewe place appere,
But hereafter when thinges shall growe into a better strengthe
& the Country be replenished with Corne as in short space
it will, yf it be well followed (for the Countrye people
them selues are great ploughers & small spenders of Corne)
then would I wishe theare should be good storehouses and
Magasines erected in all those great places of Garrison
& in all great townes aswell for the victellinge of soldiers
& shippes as for all occasions of suddeine services as also
for preventinge of all times of dearth & scarsitie and
this want is muche to be complained of in Englande
above all other Countreis, whoe trustinge to muche of
the vsuall Blessinge of the Earthe doe never forecaste
anie soche hard seasons nor anie soche suddaine occasions
as these troublous tymes maie everie daie bring forthe
when it wilbe to Late to gather provition from abroad
& to bringe it perhaps from farre for the furnishinge of
shipps or souldiers which peradventure maie need to be
presently employed, and whose want maye (which god
forbid) hap to hazard a kingdome . /.
Eudox: In deed the want of those Magazins of victells I
haue heard oftentymes complained of in England &
wondred at in other Countreis, But that is nothinge
nowe to or purpose, But as for these Garrisons which
ye haue nowe soe stronglie planted throught all Ireland
and euery place swarminge with souldiers shall theare
be noe ende of them for nowe thus beinge me seemes I
doe see Rather a Country of warre then of peace & quiete
which ye earst pretended to wourke in Ireland for if
ye bringe all thinges to that quietnesse that ye
said what then needeth to maynetayne soe greate forces
as ye have charged vppon yt /.


Iren: I will vnto yowe Eudox: in previtie discouer the drifte
of my purpose (I meane as I tould yowe) and doe well
hope herbie to settle an eternall peace in that Countrye and
also to make it verie profitable to her Maiestie the which I see must
be brought in by a stronge hand & soe contynued till it
Ronne into a stedfast Course of Goverment the which in this
sorte will neither be difficile nor daungerous for the
soldier beinge once brought in for the service into Vlster
& havinge subdued it and Connagh I will not have to lay
downe his Armes anie more till he haue effected that
which I purpose, That is firste to haue this Generall
Composition for the maintenanc of these throught all the
Realme in Regarde of the troublous tymes and daylie
daunger which is threatned to this Realme by the kinge
of Spayne: and thervppon to bestowe all my soldiers
in sorte as I haue done that noe part of all that
Realme shalbe hable or dare to quich, Then will I
eftsoones bringe in my Reformation & thervppon
establish suche an ordre of goverment as I maye
thincke meteste for the good of that Realme which beinge
once setled & all thinges put into a Right waye I
doubt not but they will Runne on fayerly & though
they would ever seke to swarve aside, yet shall they
not be hable without forreyne violence once to remove
as you your self shall soone I hope in your owne Reason
redelie conceive, which if it shall ever appere then maye
her maiestie at pleasuer withdrawe some of the garrison
& turne their paie into her purse, or if she will never
please soe to do which I wold rather muche, then shall she
have a numbre of brave old soldiers allwaies ready
for anie occasion that shee will imploye them vnto supplieng
their garrisons with freshe ones in ther steade, The
maintenanc of whome shalbe noe more charge to her maiestie
then nowe the Realme is for all the Revenue therof & much
more shee spendeth evene in the most peaceable tymes
th[at] are

that are there (as thinges nowe stand) and in the tyme
of warre which is once nowe sure euerye vijth yere shee
spendeth infinite treasuer besides to small purpose /.
Eudox: I perceive your purpose but nowe that ye haue
thus stronglie made waie vnto your reformation, as that
I see the people so humbled & prepared that they
will & must yeild to anie ordinance that shalbe
geiven them I doe much desier to vnderstand the same
for in the begininge ye promised to shewe a meane howe
to redresse all these inconveniences & abuses which ye
shewed to be in that state of goverment which nowe standes
theare as in the Lawes Customes & Religion wherin
I wold gladlie knowe firste whither in steade of those
Lawes ye wold haue newe lawes made for nowe for
ought that I see ye maie doe what ye please /.
Iren: I see• Eudox: that ye well Remembre our first
purpose & do rightlie contynue the Course therof first
therfore to speake of Lawes since wee firste beganne
with them I doe not thincke it convenient thoughe
newe it be in the power of the Prince to chaunge all the
Lawes & make newe for that shold breid a great
troble & Confusion aswell in the Englishe theare
dwellinge & to be planted as also in the Irishe For
the English havinge bene trained vpp allwaies in English
goverment will hardly be envred to anie other & the
Irish will better be drawne to the English then the
English to the Irishe goverment, Therfor sithens we cannot nowe
applie lawes fitt to the people as in the firste Institution
of comen wealth it ought to be wee will applie the people
& fitt them vnto the lawes as it most coveniently maye be The
Lawes therfore we resolue shall abide in the same sorte
that they doe both comen Lawe & Statutes only soch •••••••
defectes in the comen lawe & inconveniences in the Statute as in the
begyninge was noted & as men of deep insight shall advize may
be changed by some other newe Actes & ordinances to be by a parliament
theare confirmed, as those for tryalls of pleas of the Crowne
& privat rightes betwene parties collorable conveyances, Accessoryes/


Eudox: But howe will those be redressed by parlament when as the
Irishe which swaie moste in parlament as yow said shall appose them
selues against them . / .
Iren: That maie nowe be well avoyded for nowe that soe many
freeholdes of English shalbe established they togither with
Burgesses of townes & soche other loyall Irishmen as maye
be preferred to be knightes of the shire & soche like wilbe able
to beard & counterpoise the Rest whoe also beinge nowe brought
more in awe will the more easilie submitt them selues to
anie ordinances as shalbe for the good of them selues and
the Realme generallye. / .
Eudox: ye saie well for the increase of freeholders for their
numbres will herebie be greatlye augmented, But how
shall it passe through the hier howse which will still consiste
all the Irishe / .
Iren: Mary that also maie be well redressed by an ensample
of that which I have heard was done in the like Case by
kinge Edward the third as I remember, whoe beinge greatlye
bearded & Crossed by the lords of the Clergie, they beinge then
by reason of the Lord Abbottes & other too manie & to stronge
for him soe as he could not for their frowardnes ordre &
refourme thinges as he desierd was advized to direct out
his writtes to certeine gentlemen of best habilitie and
trust entituling them therin Barrons to serve & sitt as
Barrons in the next parliament, By which meanes he hadd
soe manie Barrons in his parlament as were able to weighe
downe the Clergie & their Frendes the which Barons were not
afterwardes lordes but only Barronettes as sondrie of them doe
yett retayne the name, & by the like devise her Maiestie maye
likwise curbe & cutt short those Irish & vnruly lordes that hinder
all good proceedinges /.
Eudox: It semes noe lesse, Then for refourminge of all these in
convenient Statutes which ye noted in the begininge & redressinge
of all those evill customes & lastlie for settlinge of sound religion
amongst them mee thinckes ye shall not need anie more to ouergoe
those particculars againe which ye mencioned nor anie other which
might besides be remembred but to leave all to the reformation
of soche a parliament in which by the good Care of the Lord deputy
and Councell they maie be all amended, Therfore nowe
ye maye

ye maie come vnto that generall Refourmation which ye spake
of & bringinge in of that establishment by which ye said all men
shoulde be contayned in duetie ever after without the terror
of warlike forces or violent wrestinge of thinges by sharp
pvnnishmentes /.
Iren: I will soe at your pleasuer The which me semes can
by no meanes be better plotted then by ensample of
soch other Realmes as have bene annoyed with like evills
that Ireland nowe is & vseth still to be, And first in this our
Realme of England it is manifest by reporte of cronicles &
other Auncient writers that it was greatlie infested with robbers
& outlawes which lurkinge in woodes & faste places vsed often
to breake forthe into the high waies & sometimes into small
villages to robb & spoyle, for redresse wherof it is written
that kinge Alured or Alfred who then Rayned ded devyde
the Realme into Shiers & the shiers into hundredes & the
hundredes into Lathes wapentakes & the wapentakes into
tithinges soe that tenne tythinges made a hundred and
five made a lathe or wapentake of which Tenne each one
was bound for an other & the eldest or best of them whome
thei called the tiethinge man or Borsholder that is the eldest
pledge because suertie for •• all the Rest, Soe that if any
one of them ded start into anie vndutifull Accion the
Borsholder was bound to bringe forth who ioyninge eftsones
withall his tiething would followe that loose person through
all places till they brought him in And if all that tything
fayled then all that Lathe was charged for that tythinge
and if that Lath fayled then all the hundred was
demanded for them, And if the hundred then the shier, who
ioyninge eftsones alltogither would not Rest till they hadd
found out & deliuered in that vndewtifull felloe, which
was not a meane able to Lawe, And herin it semes
that that good Saxon king followed the Councell of
Iethro to Moses who advised him to devyde the people
into Hundredes & to sett Capteines & wise men of
trust •• over them which should take the charge over them &
ease him of that burden, And soe ded Romulus as ye
maye Reade devyde the Romanes into Tribes and
the tribes into Centuries or hundredes By this ordinanc
this kinge brought the Realme of England, which
before was


before was moste troublesome vnto the quiete state that
noe badd person could stirre but he was streight taken
holde of by those of his owne tythinge & their Borsholder
who beinge his neighboures or next kinsman were prevy
to all his wayes & looked narrowlie into his lief, The which
institution if it were observed in Ireland would worke
the effectt which it ded in England & kepe all men within
Compasse of dewtye and obedience /
Eudox: This is contrary to that ye said before for as I re=
membre ye said there was a great disproportion betweene
England & Ireland soe as the Lawes which were fittinge
for the one wold not fitt the other howe comes it nowe then
that ye would transferre a principall institution from Ingland
to Ireland / .
Iren: This Lawe was made not by the Norman Conqueror
but by a Saxon kinge at what time England was verye
like to Ireland as nowe it standes, For it was (as I told yow)
annoyed greatlie with Robbers & owtlawes which troubled
the whole state of the Realme euerie Corner havinge a
Robbinhood in it that kept the woodes & spoiled all passengers
& Inhabitauntes as Ireland nowe hathe, soe as me seemes
this ordinance would fitt verie well & bring them all into awe
Eudox: Then when ye haue thus tiethed the Comenaltye as
ye saye & sett Borsholders ouer them all what wold ye do
when ye Came to the gentlemen would ye hould the same
Course /
Iren: yea mary moste specially for this ye must knowe
that all the Irish allmost boste them selues to be gentlemen
noe lesse then the welche, for if he can deryve him self
from the heade of anie sept as most of them can they
are soe expert by their Bardes, then he holdeth him•••
self a gentleman and thervppon scorneth eftsoones to
worke or vse anye hard labour which he saithe is the
lief of a Peasaunt or Churle, but thensfourthe
becometh either horseboye or a Stocagh to some kerne
envringe him self to his weapon & to the gentlemanly
trade of steallinge as they Count yt) Soe if a
gentleman or anye wealthye yeoman of them have

anye Children the eldest perhaps shalbe kepte in some
ordre but all the rest shall shifte for them selues and
fall to this occupacion, And moreover it is a Comon
vse amongst some of their beste gentlemens sonnes that
soe soone as they are able to vse their weapons they
straight gather them selues togither iij or iiij stocaghes or
kerne with whome wanderinge a while ydle vp & downe
the Country taketh only meate, he at last falleth into
some badd occasion that shalbe offred which being once
made knowne he is thensforthe Counted a man of worth
in whome theare is courage whearevppon there drawe
to him manie other like loose younge men which storring
him vpp with encouragement provoke him shortly to flatt
Rebellion, And this happens not only in the sonnes of
their gentlemen but oftentimes also of their noblemen
speciallie of their base sonnes as theare are fewe without
some of them, Fo they are not only not ashamed to
acknowledge them but also boast of them to such secret
services as they them selues will not be seene in, as to
plague their enemyes to spoyle their neighboures to
oppresse & crusshe some of his owne too stubberne
freeholders which are not tractable to their bould wills
Two such Bastardes of the lord Roches theare nowe
owt in Mounster whome hee dothe not onlye countenanc but
also previlye mainteyne & releive nightlie amongst
his tenantes soche an other is theare of the Earle Clantartmor
in Desmond & manie other in manie other places /.
Eudox: Then it semes that this ordinance of tythinge them
by the Polle is not onlye fitt for the gentlemen but also
for the noble men, whome I wold haue thought to have bene
of soe honorable a myndes as that they should not need soche
a base kinde of beinge bounde to their allegance whoe
should rather have heild in & have stayed all the other
from vnduetifullnes then need to be forced therinto themselues
Iren: yet soe it is Eudoxus: But yett bicause their
noble mene cannot be tythed theare beinge not many
tythinges of them and alsoe bicause a Borsolder over
them should be not only a great indignitye but
Also a Daunger to add more power to them then thei


have or to make one the Comaunder of tenne, I hould it
meeter that theare weare onlye suerties taken of them
& one band for an other, wherby if anie shall swarve his
suerties shall for safegard of their Bandes either bringe him
in or seeke to serve vppon him And besides this I would wishe
them all to be sworne vnto her Maiestie which they never yett were
but att the firste creation, And that oathe sure conteyne them
greatly or the breache of it bringe them to sharp vengeance
for god vseth to pvnnishe periurie sharplie, Soe I reade in the
Reigne of Edward the Second & also of henry the vijth
when the times were verie broken that theare was a
corporate oathe taken of all the Lordes & beste gentlemen of
fealtie to the kinge which nowe is noe lesse needfull bicause
manie of them are susspected to haue taken an other othe
previlye to some badd purposes, and theruppon to have receyved
the sacrament & bene sworne to a Priest which the thinck bindeth
them more then their allegeaunce to their Prince or love of
their Country /.
Eudox: This tythinge of the Comon people and takinge suerties
of Lordes & gentlemen I like verie well but that it will be
verie troublesome Should it not be aswell for to haue them all
booked, and the Lordes & gentlemen to take all the meaner sort
vppon them selues for they are best able to bringe them in
whensoever anie of them starteth out /
Iren This indeed Eudox: hath bene hitherto & yett is a
comen ordre amongest them to have all the people booked by
the Lordes & gentlemen, but it is the wourst ordre that
euer • was devized for by this bookinge of men, all the inferior
sorte are brought vnder the Comaund of their Lordes and
forced to followe them into anie Accion whatsoever, nowe
this ye are to vnderstand that all the Rebellions which ye
see from tyme to tyme happen in Ireland are not begonne
by the comen people but by the Lordes & Capteines of
Countreis vppon pride or wilfull obstinacye against
the goverment which whensoever they will enter into they drawe
with them all their people and followers which thincke them
selues bound to goe with them bicause they have booked
them and vndertaken for them, And this is the Reason that
in England ye have fewe soche bad occasions by reason
that the noblemen howe ever they should happen to be ill

disposed haue noe Comaund att all over the Comenialtye though
dwellinge vnder them, bicause euerye man standeth vppon
him self & bindeth his fortunes vppon his owne faithe and
firme Assurance, The which this maner of Tythinge the
Polles will worke also in Ireland for by this the people
are broken into | manie small partes like litle streames
that they cannot easilie Come togither into one heade
which is the principall Regard that is to be hadd in
Ireland, to kepe them from growinge vnto soche a heade
and adhearinge vnto greate men
Eudox But yett I cannot see howe this can be well
wrought without doenge great wronge vnto the noble
men theare for at the first Conquest of that Realme
those great seignories & lordshipps were geivene
them by the kinge that they shoulde be the stronger
against the Irish by the multitude of followers & tenantes
vnder them, All which hould their Tenentes by fealty
& soche services wherby they are by the first graunte
of the kinge made bounden vnto them & tyed to ryse
out with them into all occasions of service and this I have
often heard that when the Lord deputye hathe Raised
anie generall hostinges the noblemen have claymed the
Leadinge of them by graunt from the kinges of England
vnder the great seale exhibited | soe as the deputye
would not Refuse them to have the leadinge of them
Or if they ded they would soe wourke as none of
their followers should rise forthe to the hostinge /
Iren ye saie verie trewe but will ye see the fruicte
of those Grauntes I haue knowne when those Lordes have
hadd the leadinge of their owne followers vnder them
to the generall hostinge that they haue for the same
cutt vppon euerye ploughland within their Countrye xls
or more wherby some of them have gathered above
vij or viijC powndes & others muche more into their purse
in lieu wherof they haue gathered vnto them selues a


numbre of Loose kernes out of all partes which they haue carried
fourthe with them to whome they never gave pennye of
entertayenment allowed by the Countrye or forced by them
feede vppon the Countreis & extort vppon all men
wheare they came, For that people will neve aske
better entertayenment then to haue a Colour of service
or imployement geiven them, by which they will poll &
spoyle soe outrageouslye as the very enemy cannot do
muche worse And they also sometyme turne to the
enemye /
Eudox: It semes the first intent of those grauntes was
against the Irishe which nowe some of them vse ageins[t]
the Quene her self, But nowe what remedie is
theare for this or howe can those grauntes of the kinges
be •••• avoyded without wronginge of those Lordes which
hadd those Landes & lordshipps geivene them ./
Iren: Surelie they maye be well enough for moste of those
Lordes since their first grauntes from the kinges by which those
Landes weare geivene them haue sithens bestowed the most
parte of them amongest their kinFolke, as euerye Lorde perhaps
in his tyme hathe geivene one or other his principall
Castles to his younger sonne and other others as
larglie and amplye as they were geivene vnto him
And others they haue sold & others bought which were not
in their first graunt which nowe nevertheles they bringe
within the Compasse therof and take & exacte vppon
them as vppon their first demaynes all those kinde
of services yea & the verie vylde Irishe exaccions
as Coigny liuery Forehin and soche like by which they
poll & vtterlie vndoe the pore tenantes & freholders
vnder them which either throughe ignorance knowe not
their Tenures or throughe greatnesse of theire
newe Lordes dare not challendge them, yea &
some Lordes of Countreis as greate once as them selues
are nowe by stronge hande brought vnder them
and made

and made their vassalls, As for ensample Arundell
of the Strond in the Countie of Corke whoe was
Auncientlie a great Lorde and hable to spende
iije vC poundes by the yere as appereth by good recordes
is nowe become the lord Barries man, and doeth to him
all those services which are due vnto her Maiestie For reformacion
of all which I wish that theare were a Comission
graunted forthe vnder the greate seale (as I have
seene one Recorded in the ould Councell booke of Mounster
that was sent fourthe in the tyme of Sir William Drury)
vnto persons of speciall trust and iudgment to
enquier throught all Irelande (begyninge with
one Countrye firste & soe restinge a while till
the same were setled) by the verditt of a sounde &
substantiall Iurye howe everie man holdeth his land
of whome & by what tenure, so that euerye one should
be admitted to shewe & exhibit what right he
hathe & by what services he holdeth his landes
whither in Cheif or in soccage or by knightes service
or howe els soeuer, Thervppon would appeare first
howe all those greate Englishe Lordes overclayme
those great services what Seignories they vsurp
what wardshipps they take from the Quene what
Landes of hers they Conceale and then howe those
Irishe Capteines of Countreis have encroched vppon
the Quenes Freeholders & Tenantes howe they
have translated the tenures of them from Englishe
holdinge vnto Irishe Tanistry & defeated her
Maiestie of all her Rightes and Dueties which are to accrewe
vnto her thereout as wardshipps liveries marriages
fines of Alienations & manie other Comodities
which nowe are kepte & Concealled from her maiestie
to the valewe of fortie Thowsand Powndes yerely
I dare vndertake /


vndertake in all Ireland by that which I knowe in one Countie /.
Eudox: This Iren: would seme a daungerous Comission & readye
to sturre vpp all the Irishe into Rebellion whoe knowinge
that they haue nothinge to shewe for all those Landes which they
holde but their swordes, would rather drawe them then suffer
their Landes to be this drawne awaie from them.
Iren: Neither should their Landes be taken from them nor the
vttermoste advauntages enforced against them, but this by
discresion of the Comissioners should be made knowne vnto them
that it is not her Maiesties meaninge to vse anie soche extremitye
but onlie to reduce thinges into ordre of Englishe lawe and
make them hould their Landes of hir & restore to her, her
due services which they detaine out of those Landes which were
Auncientlie held of her, and that they should not onlye be
thrust out but also haue estates & graunte of their Landes
nowe made to them from her Maiestie, soe as they should
thensforthe hould them Rightfullie) which they nowe vsurpe
moste wrongfullie. And yet withall I would wishe that
in all those Irishe Countreis, theare were some Lande reserved
to her maiesties owne free disposition, for the better conteyninge of
the Reste & entermedlinge them with Englishe Inhabitauntes and
Customes, that knowledge might still be hadd by them of all
their doeinges, soe as noe manner of practise or conspiracie
should be in hande amongst them but notyce should be geiven
therof by one meanes or other & their practises prevented /:
Eudox: Truelie neither can the Irishe nor yet the Englishe
Lordes thincke them selues wronged nor hardlie dealte
withall herein to haue that which is indeed none of their owne
at All but her Maiesties: absolutelie geiven to them with soche
equall Condicions, as that bothe they maye be Assured
therof better then they are, and also her Maiestie not defrauded
of her Right vtterlie, for it is great grace in a Prince
to take that with Conditions which is absolutelye her owne, Thus
shall the Irishe be well satisfied, and as for the great
men which hadd soche graunt made them att First by the kinges
of England it was in Regarde that they should kepe oute
the Irishe /

the Irishe and defende the kinges Righte and his subiectes, but
nowe seinge that in steade of defendinge them they Robb & spoile
them & in steade of kepeing out the Irishe they doe not only
make the Irishe their Tenantes in those Landes & thrust out
the Englishe, but also they them selues become mere Irishe
with marrieinge with them fosteringe with them & Combyninge
with them Against the Quene, what Reason but that those
grauntes & priviledges should be either revoked or att leaste
reduced to the firste intencion for which they were graunted
for sure in myne opinion they are more sharplie to be
chastised & reformed then the Rude Irish which beinge very
wylde att the firste are nowe become somewhat more
Civill, when as these from Civilitie are growne to be
wyld & mere Irishe /:
Iren: Indeed as yowe said Eudox: these doe need a sharper
Reformation then the verie Irish, for they are muche
more stubborne then the Irishe be, and more malicious
against the English that dalye are sente over /.
Eudox: Is it possible I praie yowe howe comes that
to passe & what maie be the reason therof . /.
Iren: Mary they saie that the Land is theares onlye by right
beinge firste conquered by their Auncestours, and that
they are wronged by the newe Englishmens intrudinge
therinto whome they Call sassona that is English with as
great Reproche as they would rate a dogge, And for that
some of their Auncestours were in tymes paste when
they were Civill & uncorrupted deputies & Iustices of
the Land they thincke that the like aucthoritie should
be Committed vnto them & the charge of the Realme lefte in
their hande, which for that they see nowe otherwise
Disposed, and that trust not geivene them which their
Auncestours hadd they thincke them selues greatlie indignified
and Disgraced and therbye growe discontente & vndutifull:
Eudox: In trueth Irenius this is more then ever I harde
that the English Irishe thear should be wourse then the
wylde Irishe


wylde Irishe, Lorde howe quicklie doe that Countrye alter
mens natures, it is not for nothinge I perceive which I
have heard that the Councell of England thincke it not
good pollicie to haue that Realme refourmed or planted
with Englishe leaste they should growe as vndewtifull as
the Irishe & become muche more daungerous, As appereth
by the ensample of the Lacies in the time of Edward
the second which ye spake of that shooke of their alleagaunc
to their naturall Prince and turned to the Scott devysinge
to make him kinge of Ireland /.
Iren: Noe times haue bene without badd men, But as for that
purpose of the Councell of England which ye spake of that
they should kepe that Realme from reformation I thinck
they are most Lewdlye abused for their great carefulnes
& earnest indevours doe testifie the Contrary, neither is it
the nature of the Countrye to alter mens manners but the
badd myndes of the men, who havinge bene brought vpp
at home vnder a streight Rule of Dewtie & obedience
beinge allwaies restrayned by Sharpe pennalties from
Lewde behavior soe soone as they Come thither where thei
see Lawes more slacklye tended and the hard restraintes
which they are vsed vnto now slacked they growe more loose
& carelesse of their dueties and as it is the nature of all
men to love libertie, soe they become flatt libertines and
fall to all Licentiousnes of the Irishe more boldlie daring
to disobaye the Lawe thorowe presumption of favoure
& frendshipp then anie Irishe Dareth /.
Eudox: Then if that be soe me thinckes your late advisement
was verie evill wherbie yowe wished the Irish to be
sowed & sprinckled with English & in all the Irishe
Countreis to haue Englishe planted amongest them for to bring
them to Englishe fashions since the Englishe sooner drawe
to the Irish then the Irishe to the Englishe for as yow
said before they must ronne with the streame the greater
nombre will carrie awaye the lesse, Therfore me
seemes by this Reasonn it should be better to parte the
Irishe and

Irishe & Englishe then to mingle them togither /
Iren: But where theare is noe goode staye of goverment &
stronge ordinances to holde them, theare indeed the fewer
will followe the more, but wheare theare is due ordre of
discipline & good rule theare •• the better shall goe
foremoste & the wourse shall followe, And therfore nowe
since Ireland is full of her owne nation that maye
not be rooted out & some what stored with Inglishe
all readie & more to be, I thinck it best by an
vnion of manners & Conformitye of myndes to bringe to
be one people & to putt awaie the dislikefull Conceipt
bothe of the one & the other which wilbe by noe meanes
better then by thus enterminglinge of them that neither
all the •••••••• Irishe maye dwell togither nor all
the Englishe but by translatinge of them & scattering
them in small nombres amongst the English not only
to bringe them by dailye Conversation vnto better
likinge of eache other, but alsoe to make bothe of them
lesse hable to hurt, And therfore when I Come to the
tytheinge of them I will tieth them one with an other and
for the moste parte will make & Irishman the tythingman
whereby he shall take the lesse exception of parciality
and yett bee the more tyde therbye, But when I Come
to the headburgh which is the Lathe him will I make
an Englishman or Irishman of speciall assurance as also
when I come to appoint the Aldermen that is the head
of that hundred him will I surelie chose an Englishman
of speciall Regard that maye be a staye & pilloe
of all the Burroughe vnder him / .
Eudox: what doe yow meane by your hundred and what
by your Burroughe by that that I haue Reade in
Auncient Recordes of England an hundred ded conteyne
an hundred villages or as some saye an C. plowlandes
beinge the same which the Saxons called a Cantred, the
which Cantred as I finde Recorded in the blacke booke booke
of Ireland ded Contayne xxx villatasterre which some call
qarters of


quarters of Land & euerye villata can conteyne CCCC Cowes
in pasture & iiijC Cowes to be devided in fower heardes soe
as none of them shall ronne nere other: everie villata
Conteyninge xviijten plowlandes as it is theare sett downe,
And by that which I haue Reade of a Burroughe it signifieth
a free Towne which houldeth a principall officer Called a
headburghe to become Ruler & vndertake for all the
dwellers vnder him havinge for the same fraunchises and
priviledges graunted them by the kinge wherof it was called
a •••• freeburghe of the Layers Franciplegium ./.
Iren: Both that which ye saie Eudox: is true and yett that
which I saie not vntrewe For that which ye speake of
devydinge the Countrye into hundredes was a division of
of the Landes of the Realme but this which I tell was of
the people, whoe were thus devided •• by the Poll so
that a • hundred in this sence signifieth C pledges which were
vnder the Comand & Assurance of their Alderman The
which as I suppose was also called a wapentacke
soe named of towchinge the weapon or speire of their
Alderman, and swearing to followe him faithfully
& serve their Prince truelie, But others thincke •
that a weapentack was Tenne hundreds or Boroughes
Like wise a Boroughe as I here vse it & as the
olde Lawes still vsed it is not a Boroughe Towne
as they nowe call it that is a fraunchise Towne
but a mayne pledge of a C free persons •• therfore called
a freeburghe or (as ye saye) Franciplegium for bothe in ould
Saxon signifieth a pledge or suertie and yett is soe vsed with
vs in some speeches as Chaucer saithe St Iohn to Borrow
that is for assurance & warrantie /.
Eudox: I Conceyve the difference but nowe that ye haue
thus devyded the people into these tythinges & hundredes
howe will ye haue them soe preserved & Contynued For
people often change theare dwellinges & some must dye
whilste other some must growe vpp into strengthe into
Strengthe of yeirs & become menne . / .
Iren: /

Iren: These Hundredes I would wishe to assemble them
selues once euerye yere with their pledges & to present
them selues before the Iustices of peace, which shalbe
therunto appointed to be survayed & nombred to see
what chaunge hathe happned since the yere before
& the defecte to supplie of those yonge plantes laste
growne vpp the which are dilligently to be overlooked
& viewed of what Condition & demeanewre ••••• they
be soe as pledges maie be taken for them & they putt
into some ordre of tythinge, of all which alteracions
note is to be taken and bookes made therof accordingly:
Eudox: Nowe me thinckes, Iren: ye are to be warned
to take heede leaste vnawares ye fall into that
inconvenience which ye formerlye founde fault withe in
Others namelye that by this Booking of them ye doe
not gather them into a Newe heade, and havinge broken
their former strengthe doe not againe vnite them more
stronglie for euerye Alderman havinge all his freepledges
of his hundred vnder his Comaund maye me thinckes
yf he be ill disposed drawe all his Companie into
an evill Accion / And likewise by this assembling
of them once a yere vnto their Ealdermen by their
Wapentakes take heede •••• leaste •• ye also geive them
occasion & meanes to practise in anie Conspiracy:
Iren: Neither of bothe is to be doubted for their
Ealdermene & headburghes will not be soche men
of power and Countenanc of them selues being to
be chosen thervnto as neede to be feared, neither if
he were is his hundred att his Comaund Further
then his Princes service and also euerye tythingeman
maye Comptroll him in soche a Case, and as for the
assemblinge of the hundred muche lesse is anye
Daunger therof to be doubted seinge it is to be
before a Iustice of peace or some highe Cunstable
to be thervnto appointed Soe as of these Tythinges
there canne noe perill insue but a certeine Assuraunc
of Peace


of peace and greate good for they are therby withdrawne
from their Lordes & subiected to the Prince moreover for
the better breakinge of these heades and septes which I told
yowe was one of the greatest strengthes of the Irishe
me thinckes it should be verye well to renue that ould
statute which was made in the Raigne of
in England by which it was Commanded that that wheras
all men then vsed to be called by the name of their septes
accordinge to their seuerall nations and hadd noe surnames
at all that from thensforthe eache surname should take
vnto him self a severall surname either of his trade
and facultie or of some quality of his bodie or mynde
•• or of the place where he dwelte soe as euerye one
shoulde be distinguished from other or from the most
parte wherbie they shall not only depende vppon the
heade of their sept as nowe they doe but alsoe shall
in short tyme learne quite to forgett his Irishe nation
And herewithall would I also wish all the Oes and the
Mackes which the heades of septs haue to their names to
be vtterlie forbidden & extinguished for that the same
beinge an ordinance as some saie firste made by the Obrien
for the strengthninge of the Irishe the abrogatinge therof
will as muche infeeble them /.
Eudox: I like this Ordinanc verie well, But nowe that
ye have thus devided and distinguished them what
other ordre will ye take for their manner of lief, for all
this thoughe perhaps maye kepe him from disobedience &
disloyaltie yett will it not bringe them from their •••••••
Barbarisme and salvage lief /.
Iren: The nexte •••• that I will doe shalbe to appoint
to euerye one that is not hable to live of his freeholde
a Certeine trade of lief to which he shall finde him self
fitteste and • shalbe thought hablest the which trade he
shalbe bound to followe & live only thervppon, All trades
therfore is to be vnderstoode to be of the kindes manuall

intellectuall & mixed The one contayninge all such as
neede the exercise of bodilie labor to the performance of
their profession the other consistinge only | of the exercise
of witt & ••• reason The third sorte of bodilie labor
and parte of the witt but dependinge moste of industry
and Carefullnes Of the firste sorte be all handicraft
and husbandrye labor of the second of all Scyences
and those which are Called liberall Artes of the
Thirde is Marchandize and Chaffrye that is buyenge
and selling And without all these thre theare is
noe Comen wealthe can allmoste consistes or att the
leaste be perfecte but the wretched Realme of Ireland
wanteth the moste principall of them that is the
intellectuall Therfore in seeking to reforme her
estate it is speciallie to be looked vnto, But bicause by
husbondry which supplieth vnto vs all thinges necessary
for •• foode we chieflie live Therfore it is firste to be
provided for The firste thing then that we are to
drawe these newe tiethed men vnto ought to be husbondry
firste bicause it is the moste •• easie to be learned
needinge onlie the labor of the bodie nexte bicause it is
most Generall and most needfull then bicause it is
most naturall & lastlie bicause it is most enemy to warr
and most hath vnquietnes as the Poete saithe
Bello execrata Colonis.
for husbondrye beinge the nourse of thurst and the
Daunger of industry and Labor detesteth all that
maye worke her scathe & distroye the traveile of
her handes whose hope is all her lives comfort vnto the
plowe therfore are all those kerne stocaghes and
horsboyes to be driven & made to imploye that
hablenes of Bodie which they were wont to vse to
thefte & villanie hensforthe to labor & husbandry
In which by •• that time they haue spent but a litle
paine they will finde soche sweetnes & happie contentment
that they will afterwardes hardlie be haled awaie from
it or drawne to their wonted lewd lief in theverye
and Roguery And beinge once enured therunto they
are not


are not only to be Countenanced & encoraged by all
good meanes but alsoe provided that theare children
after them maie be brought vpp likwise in the same
& succeed in the Romes of their fathers to which ende
theare is a Statute in Ireland allreadie well provided
which Comaundeth that all the sonnes • ••••••••• of husbandmen
shalbe trayned vpp in their Fathers trade but it is god wote
verie slenderlie executed
Eudox: But doe ye not Count in this trade of husbandrye
pasturinge of Cattle & kepeinge of their Cowes for that
is Reckoned as a parte of husbandry
Iren: I knowe it is & needfullie to be vsed but I doe not
meane to allowe anie of those able bodies which are hable
to vse bodilie labor to followe a •••• fewe Cowes grasinge
but impotente persons as beinge vnable for stronge traveile are yet
able to drive Cattle to & fro to their pasture, For this kepinge
of Cowes is of it self a verie ydle lief & a fitt nourserrye
for a theif for which Cause ye remembre that I disliked the
Irishe mann of kepeinge bollies in sommer vppon the
mountaynes and livinge after that salvage sorte / But
if they will algates feed any Cattle or kepe them on the
mountaynes lett them make some townes nere to the
mountaynes side where they maie dwell togither with neighbors
And be coversaunt in the viewe of the world / And to
saie truthe though Ireland be by nature counted a great soyle
of pastuer, yet hadd I rather haue fewer •••• Cowes kept &
men better manerid then to have soche huge increase of Cattle
& noe increase of good Conditions, I would therfore wishe that
theare weare some ordinance made amongst them that whosoeuer
should kepe xxti kyne should kepe a plough goeng for otherwise
all men would fall to pasturinge & none to husbondrye which is a
great Cause of this dearthe nowe in Ingland and a cause
of the vsuall stealthes in Ireland, for looke into all Countryes
that live in soche sorte by kepeinge of Cattell, & ye shall
finde that they are bothe verie barborus & vncivile & as
greatlie geivene to warr The tartarions the Moscovians
the Norwayes the Getes the Armenians & manie others
doe witnes the same, And therfore since nowe we purpose
to drawe the Irishe desier of warres & tumults • to the love
of peace & civilitye it is expedient to abridge their
great custome

great custome of heardinge & augment their more trade
of tillage & husbandrye as for other occupations & trades
they neede not to be enforced to, but euerye man bound only
to followe one that he thinckes him self aptest for other
trades of Artificers wilbe occupied for verie necessitye &
constrayned vse of them, and soe likwise will merchandise
for the gayne therof But learning & bringinge vpp in
liberall sciences will not come of it self, but must be
drawne on with straight Lawes & ordinances, and
therfore it were meet that suche an one were ordeyned
that all the sonnes of lordes & gentlemen & suche
others as are able to bring them vp in learning should
should be trayned vp therin from their Chyldhoodes, And
for that ende euerye parishe should be forced to kepe
one petie schoole master adioyninge vnto the parishe church
to be the more in viewe, which should bringe vpp ther
Children in the firste elementes of lettres and that in
euerye Cantred or Baronye they should kepe an other
habler schoolemaster which should instruct them in gramer
& in the principalls of sciences to whome they sholde
be Compelled to sende their youthe to be disciplined
wherbie they will in shorte space growe vpp to that
civile conversation that bothe the Children will
loathe the former rudenes in which they were bredd &
also their parentes will evene by the ensample of
their yonge Children perceive the feblenes of their
owne brutishe behavior compared to theirs for
learninge hathe that wonderfull power in it self
that it can •• soften & attemper the most sterne
& salvage nature /
Eudox Surelie I am of the mynde that nothing
will bringe them from their vncivile••• lief sooner then
learninge & discipline next after the knowledge &
feare of god and therfore I doe still expecte
that ye should ••••••••• • ••••• •••, ••• •••••••
• •• ••••• ••••••• •••• •• •••••• come thervnto
& sett some


& sett downe ordre for reformation of religion which is firste
to be respected accordinge to the sayeinge of Christe firste
I seeke •••••• the kingdome of heavene & the Righteousnes
therof &C.
Iren: I haue in mynde soe to doe, but lett me I praye yow
firste finishe that which I hadd in hande wherbye all
the ordinanc which shalbe afterwardes sett for Relegion may
abide the more formerlye & be observed more dilligently
nowe that this people is thus tythed ordred & euerye •••
one bounde vnto some honest trade of lief which shalbe
particcularly entred & sett downe in the tythinge Bookes
yett perhaps theare wilbe some straglers & Runnagates which
will not of them selues come in & yeilde them selues
to this ordre & yett after the well finishinge of the presente
warre & establishinge of the Garrisons in all stronge
places of the Country wheare theare wonted ••••••• ••
refuge was moste, I suppose their will fewe stande out
or if their doe they will shortlye be brought in by the
eares, But yett afterwardes if anie one of these sholde
swarve or anie that is tyed to a trade should afterwardes
not followe the same, according to this institution but
should stragle vpp and downe the Countrye or myche
in Corners amongst their frendes Idlye, as Carrowes
Bardes Iesters & soche like, I wold wishe that theare
were a provost marshall appointed in euerye shier which
should Contynuallye walke throughe the Country with
half a dozen or half a score horsemen to take vpp
soche Loose persons as they should finde thus wandringe
whome he should pvnnishe by his owne Aucthoritye
with soche paines as the person shall serve to deserve
for if he be butt once soe taken ydlie Rogueinge
he maie pvnnishe him more lightlie as with stockes
or soche like, But if he be founde againe soe loytering
he maie scourge him with whips or Roddes, After which
if he have againe, taken lett him have the bittereste
of marshall Lawe, likewise if any Relickes of the
olde rebellion be founde by him that either have not
Come in

Come in & submitted them selues to the Lawe or that
havinge once Come in doe breake forthe againe or walke
disorderly lett him taste of the same Cupp in godes name
for it was due to them for their first guilte & nowe
beinge revived by their latter loosnes lett them haue
their firste desart as nowe beinge founde vnfit to live in
the Comen wealthe /.
Eudox: This weare a good ordinance but me thinckes it
is an vnnecessarye charge and alsoe vnfit to contynewe
the name or forme of a marshall Lawe, when as
their is a proper officer appointed alreadie for these
turnes, to weete the shreif of the shier whose
peculyer office it is to walke contynuallie vpp and
downe his Balywicke as ye would haue a marshall
to snatche vpp all these Ronnagates & vnprofitable
membres & to bringe them to his gaole to be pvnnished
for the same, Therfore this maye well be spared /
Iren: not soe me seemes for though the shreif
haue this Aucthoritie of him self to take vpp
all soche stragglers & imprison them yett shall not
he doe soe muche good nor worke the terror in
the•• hartes of them that a marshall will, whome
they shall knowe to have powre of lief & deathe
in soche Cases & specially to be appointed for them
neither dothe it hinder but that though it perteyne
to the shreif the shreif maie do therin what he
Canne & yet the marshall maie walke his Course
besides for bothe of them maie doe the more goode &
more terrefye the ydle Rogue, knowinge that though
he haue a watch vppon the one yett he maie
lighte vppon the other, But this proviso is needfull
to be hadd in this Case that the shreif maye not
have the like powre of lief as the marshall hathe
and as


and as heretofore they haue bene accustomed for it is
Daungerous to geive power of lief into the handes of
him which maie have benefitt •• by the parties Deathe, As
if the said loose liver have anie goodes of his owne
the shreif is to seaze thervppon, wherebie it hath
Come to passe that some whoe haue not perhaps
deserved iudgment of Deathe thoughe otherwise
perhaps offendinge haue bene for their goodes sake
caught vpp & carried straight to the bough a
thinge indeed verie pittifull & horrible, therfore by
noe meanes would I wishe the shreif to have soche
Aucthoritye nor yett to imprison that loosell till the
Sessions: for soe all gaoles might be soone filled
but to sende him to the marshall, whoe eftsoones
findeinge him faultie shall geive him meete Correction
and ridd him awaye forthwith /.
Eudox: I doe nowe perceive your Reason well, but
torne we nowe to that wherof wee earst spake I
meane to Religion & Religious men what ordre
will yowe sett amongst them /.
Iren: for Religion litle haue I to saye my self
beinge as I said not professed therin, and it self
beinge but one soe as theare is but one waye therin
for that which is true onely is and the rest are not
at all yett in plantinge of religion thus muche
is needfull to be observed that it be not sought
forciblye to be impressed into them with terror and
sharpe pennalties as nowe is the manner butt
Rather deliuered & intituled with myldenesse and
gentlenes soe as it maye not be hated before it
be vnderstood and their professours despysed and
Reiected for this I knowe that the most of the
Irishe are

Irishe are soe farre from vnderstandinge of people
& Religion as they are of the protestantes profession
and yett doe they hate it thoughe vnknowne evene
for the verie hatred which they haue of the English
& their goverment Therfore it is expedient that
some discreet ministers of their owne Contrye
men be first sent amongst them which by their
mylde perswasions and instructions as alsoe
of their sober lief & Conversation maye drawe
them first to vnderstand & afterwardes to
embrace the doctryne of their salvation, for
if that the Auncient godlie fathers which first
Converted them beinge infidells to the Faithe
were able to pull them from Idolitrye and
pagonisme to the true beleif in ••• Christe as
St Patrick & St Colument. howe muche more
easilie shall godlie teachers bringe them to
the•• true vnderstanding of that which they allready
profeste wherin it is great wunder to see the oddes
which is betwene the zeale of Popishe priestes and
the ministers of the Gospell, for they spare not
to come out of Spayne from Rome from Reynes
& Longe toyle & daungerous traveillinge hither
wheare they knowe perill of deathe awayteth them
and noe reward nor Riches is to be founde only
to drawe the people vnto the Churche of Rome
wheras our ydle ministers havinge a waye for creditt
& estimation therby opned vnto them & having
the livinges of the Countrye offred them without
paines without perill will neither for the same nor
anie love of god nor hele of Religion nor for
all the good which they maye doe by wynninge
sowles to


sowles to god be drawne forthe from their warme
neastes & their sweete loves syde to looke out into
godes harvest which is evene readie for the sicle &
all the feildes yellowe longe agoe doubtlesse
those good• ould godlie Fathers will I feare me
rise vpp in the daye of iudgment to condempne them /.
Eudox: Surelie it is great pittie Iren that thear
are none chosen out of the Ministers of Englande
good & sober discreete men which might be sent over
thither to teache & instruct them, And that theare
is not as muche care hadd of their sowles as of
their bodies for the Care of bothe lieth vppon
the Prince /.
Iren: were there never so many sent over they should
doe small good till one enormity be taken from them
That is that bothe they be restrayned from sendinge
ther yonge men abroade to other vniuersities beyonde
sea as Rennes Douwaye loraine & the like, and
that others from abroade be restrayned for Comynge
to them for they lurkinge secretlie in their howses &
in Corners of the Cuntry doe more hurte & hindrance
to religion with their private perswasions then all the
others can doe good with their publike instruction and
though for these later theare be a good statute theare
ordayned yet the same is not executed, and as for the
former their is noe Lawe for their ordre for ther restrainct
att all /.
Eudox: I marveile it is noe better looked vnto, & not
onlie this but that also which I remembre yowe motioned
in your abvses Concerninge the profittes & Revenues of
the Landes of fugitives in Ireland which by pretence
of Certeine Collourable conveyances are sent contynually
over vnto them to the comfortinge of them & others
againste her

againste her Maiestie for which here are in England theare
is goode ordre taken: and whie not then aswell in
Ireland, for though therbee noe statute theare yett
enacted, therfore yett mighte her maiestie by her only
prerogetive seaze the fruictes & profittes of those
fugetives Landes into her handes till they Come over
to testifie theare true alleageance /.
Iren: I would she might soe doe but the Combrous
times doe perhaps hinder the Regard hereof and of
manie other good intentions /.
Eudox: But whie then ded they not mynde yt in
peaceable tymes /.
Iren: Leave we that to their graver Consciderations
but proceed wee forward. next Care in Religion
is to build vpp & Repare all the Ruined Churches
wherof the most parte lie evene to the grownde and
some that haue bene Latelie repayerid are soe
vnhandsomlye patched & thatched that men doe evene
shonne the places for the vncomelines therof, therfore
I would wishe that theare were ordre taken to
have them built in some better forme accordinge to the
Churches of England for the outward shewe assure
your self dothe greatly drawe the people to the
reverencinge & frequentinge therof, & what euer some
of our late too nyce fooles saye theare is nothinge in
the semely forme & Comely ordre of the Churche
And for soe kepeinge & contynueinge them there
should likwise Churchwardennes of the gravest men
in the parishe be appointed as they be here in England
which shold take the yerelie charge bothe hereof and
alsoe of the Scoolehowses which I wishe to be buylte nere
to the said


to the said Churche for maintenance of bothe which it were
meete that some small portion of land were allotted sithe
noe more mortmaines are to be looked for /
Eudox: Indeede me semes it wolde be soe convenient butt
when all is done howe will ye haue your churches served
or your ministers mainteyned since the livinges (as yowe
said) are not sufficient scarse to make them a gowne
muche lesse to yeild meete maintenanc accordinge to the
dignitie of their degree /.
Iren: Theare is noe waie to help that but to laye ij or
iij of them togither vntill soche tyme as the Country
growe more Riche & better inhabited at which tyme the
tythes & other obvencions will alsoe be more augmented &
better valewed But nowe that wee have thus gone
through all the three sortes of trades & sett a Course
for their good establishment, lett vs if it please yow goe next
to some other needfull pointes of other publique matters
noe lesse Concerninge the good of the comen wealthe though
but accidentally dependinge on the former And first I
wishe that ordre were taken for the cuttinge downe &
openinge of all places through woodes soe that a wyde
waye of the space of C yardes might be Laid open
in euerye of them for the safetie of traveillors, which vse
often in those perillus places to be Robbed & sometymes
murdered /.
next that Bridges were builte vppon all Rivers and
all the fordes marrid & spilt soe as none might passe
anie other waye but by those bridges & euery bridge to
have a gate & a small gatehouse sett theron, wherof
this good will come that noe night stealthes which are
comenly drivene in by wayes & by blinde fordes vnvsed of
anye but soche like shalbe convayed out of one Countrye
into an other as they vse but that they must passe by these
Bridges wheare they maie either be happilye •• encountred
••• or easilie tracted or not suffred to passe att all by
meanes of

by meanes of those gatehouses theron, Also that in all
straightes & narrowe passages as betwene two bogges
or throughe anie depe forde or vnder anie mountayne
syde there should be some litle fortilage or wooden
castle sett which should kepe & Comaund that straight:
wherbie anie Rebells that should come into the Cuntrye
might be stopped that waye or passe with great perill:
moreover that all highe wayes should be fenced & shutte
vpp on bothe sides leavinge only xl foote bredthe for
Passage soe as none should be able to passe butt
throughe the highe wayes, wherebie theives & night
Robbers might be the more easilie pursued & encountred
when there shalbe noe other waie to drive their stolne
Cattle but therin, as I formerlye declared /.
Further that theare should in sondrye Convenient
places by the highe wayes be townes appointed to be
builte the which should be freeburghes & incorporate
vnder Balives to be by their enhabitantes well &
stronglie entrenched or otherwise with gates att eache
side therof to shutte nightly like as their is in
manie places in the Englishe pale, & all the walls
about it to be stronglie shut vpp soe as none shoulde
passe but through these townes, To some of which it
were good that the priviledge of Markett were geiven
the Rather to strengthen & enhable them to their defence
for there is nothinge doe sooner Cause civilitye in any
Countrye then manie markett townes by Reason that
people repayeringe often thither for their needes will
daily see & Learne civile manners of the better sorte
Besides theare is nothinge dothe more staye & strengthen
the Countrye then soche Corporate Townes as by profe in
manie rebellions hathe appearid, in which all when the


Countreis have swarven the townes have stoode faste &
yeilded good Releif to the Soldiers in all occasions of
services, And lastlie theare is nothinge dothe more in
riche anie Countrye or Realme then manie townes for
to them will all people drawe & bringe the fruictes
of their trades aswell to make money of them as to
supplie theare needfull vses, And the Countrymen wilbe
more industrious in tillage & Rearinge all husbandrye
Comodities knowinge that they shall have Redie sale
for them att those townes, And in all those townes shold
their covenient Innes be erected for the lodginge and
harboringe of all traveillors whoe are nowe oftentymes
spoyled by lienge abroade in weake thetche howses for
want of soche safe places to shroud themselues in /.
Eudox: But what profitt shall ••••• your markett townes
reape of their markett when as eache one maye sell
there Corne & Cattle abroade in the Countrye and
make their secreet bargaines amongst themselues as
nowe I vnderstand they vse /.
Iren: Indeede Eudox: They doe soe and therby noe small
inconvenience dothe arise to the comen wealth for nowe when
anye one hathe stolne a Cowe or a garran, he maye
secretlye sell •• it in the Countrye without privitye of
anie, wheras if he brought it to a markett towne it
would perhaps be knowne & the theif discouered, Therfore it
were good that a straight •• ordinanc were made that none
should buy or sell any Cattall but in some open markett
(there beinge nowe markett townes euerye wheare att hande) vppon
a great pennaltie, neither should they leikwise buye any
Corne to sell the same againe vnlesse it were to make malt
therof to sell the same againe, for by soche Ingrossinge and
regratinge wee see the dearth that nowe comenly raigneth
here in England to have bene caused hereunto also to be
Added that good ordinanc which I Remembre was once proclaymed

throughout all Ireland that all men should marke their
Cattle with an open seuerall marke vppon their flancke or
Buttockes, soe as if they happned to be stolen they might
appere whose they were and they which should buye them
mighte therbie susspecte the owner & beware to abstayne
from buyeinge them of a susspected person with soche an
vnknowne marke /:
Eudox: Sure these ordinances seeme verie expedient but
speciallye of free townes of which I wonder that theare
is soche small store in Ireland & that in the firste
peoplinge & plantinge therof they were neglected and
Omitted /
Iren: They were not omitted for theare were through
all places of the Countrye convenient manie goode townes
seated which through that invndation of the Irishe which I
first tolde yowe of were vtterly wasted & defaced of
which the ruynes are yett in manie places to be seene &
of some noe signe att all Remayninge save only their bare
names but their seates are not to be founde /
Eudox: But howe then Cometh it to passe that thei
haue never since •••••••• recouered nor their habitacions
bene reedified as of the Reste which haue bene no lesse
spoyled & wasted /.
Iren: The Cause •••••• therof was for that after
their desolation they were lege by gentlemen of the
kinge vnder collour to repayer them & gather the pore
Relixe of the people of their people againe togither
Of whome havinge obtayned them they were soe farre
from reedifieng them, as that by all mean they have
indevoured to kepe them waste least that beinge repayrid
their Charters mighte be Renued & their Burgesses


restored to their Landes which they •••• hadd nowe in
their possession muche •• lyke as in those olde monimentes
of Abbeys & Religeous howses wee see them likewise
vse to doe for which Cause it is iudged that k. henry
the viijith bestowed them vppon them, knowinge that
therbie they should never be able to ryse againe And
evene soe doe these Lordes in those pore ould corporate
townes of which I Could name yowe diuerse but for
kindlinge of displeasuer, Therfore as I wished many
Corporate townes to be erected soe would I againe
wishe them to be free not dependinge vppon ther
service nor vnder the Comand of anie but the
Goverment, And being soe they will bothe strengthen
all the Country rounde about them which by their meanes
wilbe the better replenished & enriched & alsoe be as
contynuall holdes for her Maiestie if the people should
revolt or breake out againe for without soche it is
easie to forraye & overunne the whole Land lett be for
ensample all those freeburghes in the Lowe Cuntreis
which nowe are all the strengthe therof, These & other like
ordinances might be devised for the good establishment of
that Realme after it is once subdewed & reformed
In which it might afterwardes be verie easily kept
& mainteyned with small Care of the Governor and
Counsell theare appointed soe as it should in short
space yeild a plentifull Revenue to the Crowne of
England which nowe doth butt sucke & consume the
treasuer therof through the so vnsound plottes and
changeable •••••••• ordres which are daylie devised
for her good yett never effectually prosecuted or
performed /.
Eudox But in all this your discourse I haue not marked
any thinge by yowe spoken towchinge the appointment
of the

of the principall officer to whome ye wishe the charge &
performance of all this to be Comitted onely I observed
some fowle abuses as yow noted in some of the Late governors
that the reformacion wherof ye lefte ofte for this presente
place . / .
Iren: I delight not to laye open the blames of soe greate
magistrates to the rebuke of the world & therfore their reformacion
I will not meddle with but leave vnto the wisdome of
graver heades to be Conscidered, only this muche I will
generally speake •• hereof to satisfie your desier that the
gouerment & cheif magistracy I wishe to contynue as it doth
to weete that it be ruled by a Lord deputye or Iustice
for that is a verie safe kinde of Rule, but therewithall
I wishe that over him theare were also placed a lord
lieutenant of some of the greatest personages in England
suche an one I Could name vppon whome the eye of
all England is fixed & our Last hopes nowe rest:
whoe beinge intitled with that dignity & beinge allwaies
here resident maye backe & defend the good Course
of that goverment against all maleigners which ellse
will throughe their Cuninge workinge vnder hand
deprave what euer thing shalbe well begonne or
intended theare as wee comenly see by experience att
this daie to the vtter ruine & desolation of that
pore Realme, and this leiftenancye should be noe
discontynuancinge to the Lord deputye but rather a
strengthninge & maynetayninge of all his doeinges for
nowe the cheif evill in that goverment is that noe
goverment is suffered to goe on with anie one course but
vppon the leaste informacion here of this or that he
is either stopped or Crossed & other Courses appointed
him from hence which he shall run: which howe inconvenient
it is at this howre to well felt, And therfore it should
be one principle in the appointment of the lord deputyes
Aucthoritie that it should be more ample & absolute
then it is


then it is, and that he should have vncomptrolled power to
doe anie thing that he with the advisement of the Counsell should
thincke meet to be done, for it is not possable for the Counsell
here to direct a governor theare, who shalbe forced oftentymes
to followe the necessitie of present occasions & to take the
suddaine advantage of tyme which being once loste will
not be recouered whylest throughe expecting direccion
from hence the delayes wherof are oftentymes through
other greater affayers most yrksome) the opportunityes
theare in the meane tyme passe awaie & great danger
often groweth which by soche tymely prevention might easily
be stopped And this I remember is worthilye observed by
machiavell in his discourses vppon livie where he comendeth
the manner of the Romaynes goverment in geiving absolute
powre to all their consulls & governors abused they should
afterwardes derelie Answere & the Contrary therof he reprehendeth
in the states of Venice of florence & manie other principallit[ies]
of Italie whoe vse to Lymitt their cheif officers so streightl[ye]
as that therby sometymes they have loste soche happy
occasions as they Could never Come vnto againe, The
like wherof whoe soe have bene conuersant in the goverment of
Ireland have to often seene to their great hurt, Therfore
this I could wish to be redressed and yett not soe but
that in particcular thinges he should be restrayned though
not in generall goverment as namelie in this that noe offices
should be sold by the lord deputye for money nor noe
pardons nor proteccions bought for Reward, nor noe beves
taken for Captenryes of Countryes nor noe shares of
Bisshopprickes for nominatinge ther Bisshopps nor noe
forfeytures nor dispensation of prohibited wa•res
and specially of Corne & fleshe: with manye the
Like which neede some manner of restraint or ells great
truste in the honorable disposicion of the Lordes
Deputye /.
Thus I

Thus I haue •••• Eudox: as breiflye as I Could and
as my Remembrance would serue me am thorought the
state of that whole Country bothe to lett yowe see what
it nowe is & also what it maie be by good Care &
amendment, not that I take vppon me to chaunge the
pollicie of soe greate a kingdome or prescribe
Rules to wise men as have the handling therof
but onlie to shewe you the evills which in my small
experience I haue observed to have bene the cheif
hindraunce of the Reformation therof and by way
of conferrence to declare my simple opinion for
redresse therof & establishinge a good Course of
of that Goverment which I doe not deliuer as a perfect
plott of myne owne invention to be only followed
but I haue learned & vnderstood the same by the consultacions
& Accions of verie wise governors & Counsellors whome
I have sometymes hearde treat hereof, soe have I
thought good to sett downe a Remembrance of them
for myne owne good & your satisfaccion, That who
soe liste to overlooke them allthoughe perhaps muche
wiser then they which have this advized of that estate
yett att least by Comparison hereof maie perhaps
better his owne iudgment, and by the light of others
foregoenge him maye followe after with more ease &
h[ap]pelie finde a f[ay]rer waye therunto then thei which
h[aue] gone before /.
Eudox: I thancke yow Iren: for this your gentle paines
withall not forgettinge nowe in your shuttinge vpp to put
yowe in mynde of that which ye have formerlye half
promised that hereafter when wee shall meet againe
vppon the like good occasion ye will declare vnto
vs those your observations which ye have gathered of
the Antiquities of Ireland . / . / . / .